Prelim 2 Study Guide - HD 220 Prelim 2 Study Guide: 1....

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HD 220 Prelim 2 Study Guide: 1. Parallel Processing a. What is “parallel processing” in the nervous system b. For each system, think of an example of parallel processing i. Corticospinal tract – different pathways for different muscles and movements 1. Lateral and Medial 2. Topographic organization a. What does topographic organization mean? b. For each system, know how topographic organization is coded for that system i. Visual – Visual map of the LGN that stays on the V1 ii. Auditory – the Basilar membrane and distribution of frequency iii. Motor – motor homunculus 3. Sensory receptors a. For each of the sensory systems (not motor) we discussed the receptors that transform the stimulus from the world into a neural signal. Know the sensory receptor(s) for each system, a little about the stimulus is transforms, and, if discussed, how that transformation takes place. 4. Primary cortical areas a. i. Primary visual cortex – 18/Occipital Lobe ii. Primary auditory cortex – 41/42 -/Superior Temporal lobe iii. Motor cortex – 4-Frontal lobe, precentral gyrus iv. Sensory cortex – 3, 1, 2/Parietal lobe, seconday is 5.7, immediately posterior Vision: Understand the stimulus used in vision: Light is the stimulus for vision, it is the electromagnetic energy that we see. It comes either directly from a source, such as a lamp or the sun, or indirectly after having been reflected off one or more objects. It travels from the outside world, through the pupil, and into the eye where it strikes a light- sensitive surface on the back of the eye called the retina. Light is a continuously moving wave, and the human eye detects 400-700 nanometers in wavelength (range of visible light). Visible light is constrained by properties of our visual receptors – if receptors could detect light in ultraviolet or infrared, we would see even more colors. Understand the ways that the eye is designed for light: The eye is designed to capture and focus light. The sclera is the white part the forms the eyeball. The cornea is the eye’s clear outer covering. The iris opens and closes to allow more or less light in. The Lens
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focuses light. The retina is where light energy initiates neural activity. As light enters the eye, it is bent first by the cornea , travels through the hole in the iris called the pupil and is then bent again by the lens . The curvature of the cornea is fixed, so the bending of light waves is fixed as well. Small muscles adjust the curvature of the lens , this allows near and far images to be focused on the retina. What causes near and farsightedness?: If the focal point of the light is slightly in front of the receptor surface or slightly behind it, a refractive error occurs. Myopia (nearsightedness), an inability to bring distant objects into focus, is caused when the eyeball is too long, or excessive curvature of the cornea. Light falls short of the retina. Hyperopia (farsightedness), which is less common, people are unable to focus on near
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This note was uploaded on 07/07/2008 for the course HD 2200 taught by Professor Belmonte,m. during the Spring '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Prelim 2 Study Guide - HD 220 Prelim 2 Study Guide: 1....

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