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Chapter 17 term1

Chapter 17 term1 - Chapter 17 terms Cultural variations...

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Chapter 17 terms Cultural variations : within group similarities and between group differences can be of any sort-physical, psychological, behavioral, or attitudinal. These phenomena are often referred to as cultural variations. Two ingredients are necessary to explain cultural variations: (1) a universal underlying mechanism and (2) environmental differences in the degree to which the underlying mechanism is activated 535 Cultural personality psychology : generally has 3 key goals: (1) to discover the principles underlying the cultural diversity; (2) to discover how human psychology shapes culture; and (3) to discover how cultural understandings in turn shape our psychology 535 Evoked culture : refers to a way of considering culture that concentrates on phenomena that are triggered in diff ways by diff environmental conditions 536 High variance conditions : one key variable triggering communal food sharing is the degree of variability in food resources. Specifically, under high-variance conditions, there are substantial benefits to sharing. 536 Egalitarianism : refers to how much a particular group displays equal treatment of all individuals w/in that group Culture of honor : nisbett proposed that the economic means of subsistence of a culture affects the degree to which the group develops what he calls “a culture of honor.” In cultures of honor, insults are viewed as highly offensive public challenges that must be met with direct confrontation and physical aggression. The theory is that differences in the degree to which honor becomes a central part of the culture rests ultimately w/economics, and specifically the manner in which food is obtained. 538
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Transmitted culture : refers to representations originally in the mind of one or more persons that are transmitted to the minds of other people. Three examples of cultural variants that appear to be forms of transmitted culture are differences in moral values, self-concept, and levels of self-enhancement. Specific patterns of morality, such as whether it is considered appropriate to eat beef or wrong for a wife to go to the movies w/out her husband, are specific to certain cultures. These moral values appear to be transmitted from person to person within the culture 539 Balkanization : refers to social re-segregation following a time of peaceful integration and social diversity. The term is derived from breakup of Yugoslavia 543 Interdependence : interpretation is one of the three levels of cognition that are of interest to personality psychologists. Interpretation is the making sense of, or explaining, various events in the world. Psychoanalysts offer patients interpretations of the psychodynamic causes of their problems through many interpretations, patients are gradually led to an understanding of the unconscious source of their problems. 299, 378 Independence : markus and KItayama propose that each person has two fundamental “cultural tasks” that have to be confronted. One such task, agency or independence, involves how you differentiate yourself from the larger group.
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Chapter 17 term1 - Chapter 17 terms Cultural variations...

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