finalmvs250 - The Relationship Between Female High...

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The Relationship Between Female High School/Collegiate Aged Athletes’ Varying Hormone Concentrations Associated With the Menstrual Cycle and the Susceptibility to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries Brittany Hartman Ashley Kick Jeff Magnatta Tim Martin Amanda Whitcraft
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Introduction With the passage of Title IX, the number of females participating in athletics has increased exponentially. As the number of female athletes increased, the intensity of their sport increased as well. Today, female athletes train harder and compete at the most elite levels of sport. Along with these trends, it has become increasingly apparent that college and high school aged female athletes are three times more likely to rupture their anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) than their male counterparts (14). Last year alone, over 30,000 high school and collegiate female athletes suffered from ACL injuries (15). This is the anterior drawer of the ligament that connects the posterior femur to the anterior tibia. Physiological structure of the ligament is composed of collagen (Type I and Type III) and biglycan (9). The ACL is critical in retaining joint stability, which is responsible for providing eighty-six percent of the restraint that limits the tibia from shifting anterior to the femur (13). Figure 1 below displays the anatomy of the knee joint and two of its ligaments. http://www.knee-replacement-surgery.com/images/fig006.jpg 2
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Many studies have focused on the mechanisms affecting the increase of female susceptibility of the ACL using a variety of techniques. Injuries have been hypothesized to result from differences between male and female anatomy. For instance, differentiation in the size of femoral condyles between sexes, which are responsible for movements in the joint space of the knee, have recently gained attention in studies. Other theories considered in prior testing, included the circumstances of the injury (playing surface, sport type), training techniques, non-contact movement/contact movement, fluctuation of hormone levels related to the menstrual cycle, and the influence of oral contraceptives. Levels of hormones vary throughout the menstrual cycle, and are unique to the female physiology. Therefore, the concentrations of hormone levels may be very significant to the occurrence of ACL injuries and knee laxity in females. The studies included in this review of literature have specifically analyzed the effects of hormone levels in females throughout the course of their menstrual cycles. Our review of literature compiled these fifteen studies in an effort to gain insight to recommend future studies. Review of Literature Five members conducted this review of literature, each contributing three studies relevant to our research question. All studies were found using PubMed and MedLine, made available through the University’s research database of peer-reviewed journals. 3
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finalmvs250 - The Relationship Between Female High...

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