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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 23: Migration Like the demographic transition we discussed last time, migration is intimately related to the two waves of globalization, and also intimately related to the of the United States and in fact, to that of the entire New World, North and South America, Australia and Oceania. Of course, there was large-scale migration before the era of globalization, but it was almost entirely overland, and the movement of people across the oceans is an almost exclusively modern phenomenon. There was oceanic movement in traditional societyIm thinking of the settlement of the Pacific Islands, from Hawaii to New Zealandbut that involved thousands of people over thousands of years. The peopling of the Americas involved millions of people, and the settling was measured in decades. I would distinguish three main periods of migration to the Western Hemisphere, the first before the transportation revolution of the nineteenth century, the second concurrently with and as part of the first wave of globalization in the nineteenth century and ending in 1914, and the third concurrently with and as part of the contemporary wave of globalization. Im going to spend just a minute or two on pre-Revolutionary migration, a fair amount of time on the nineteenth century wave and the balance of the time on the contemporary wave, comparing and contrasting it to the nineteenth century wave. Prerevolutionary migration If youll recall the lecture on transportation in the second week of the course, pre- revolutionary transportation was dangerous, slow, uncertain and above all expensive. Large crews, not a lot of room for passengers and slow passages meant it cost a lot to cross the Atlantic: so much, in fact, that people of average incomes could not afford to come. This is why the majority of passengers across the Atlantic before the 1800s were not paying passengers but bonded labor slaves from Africa or indentured servants from Europe. Generally speaking, migration across the Atlantic was economically feasible for the non-propertied if migrants paid or were forced to pay with their labor. Transportation revolution Thus, the nature of the settlement of the New World fundamentally changed with the coming of the transportation revolution, the drastic lowering of the cost and speed of transportation combined with drastic increases in reliability. By land, the transportation revolution came about by the railroad, while by water it included using larger and more reliable steam-engines, substituting of iron for wood ship construction, and cutting the Suez and Panama Canals, all combining to...
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This note was uploaded on 07/08/2008 for the course ASIAN STUD 20A taught by Professor Choy during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Spring '08