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india - Republic of India Geography Template copyright 2005...

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Unformatted text preview: Republic of India Geography 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 2 Geography Area: 3,287,590 sq km (more than 1/3 the size of U.S.) Climate: Varies from tropical monsoons in the South to temperate climates in the North Terrain: upland plains (the Deccan Plateau) in South, flat to rolling plains along the Ganges, deserts in west (Rajasthan), Himalayas in the North (Nepal) Natural Resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 3 People Population: 1,080,264,388 (July 2005) Population growth rate: 1.4% Life Expectancy: 64 years Infant Mortality Rate: 56/1000 live births Ethnic Groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other (Anglo, Sindhi, Parsi, indigenous tribes, etc.) 3% Religions: Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8% Unspecified (i.e Footballism) 0.1% (2001 census) 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 4 People Languages: - English is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication - National language: Hindi, 30% of population - 14 Other Official Languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit - Hindustani/ "Indian": Not an official language, yet spoken widely. Combination of Hindi and Urdu Literacy rate: total: 59.5% male: 70.2% female: 48.3% (2003 est.) 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 5 - A diverse economy that includes traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a rapidly growing service industry - 2/3 of work force is still in agriculture, despite growing industrial and service industries - India is capitalizing on its large numbers of welleducated people skilled in the English language to become a major exporter of software services and software workers Economy 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 6 Economy Currency: Indian rupee (INR) Exchange Rate per US dollar: 45.317 GDP: $3.319 trillion GDP real growth rate: 6.2% GDP per capita: $3,100 Labor Force: 482.2 million Unemployment Rate: 9.2% 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 7 Economy Agriculture products: rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish Industries: textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software Export commodities: textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures Import commodities: crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 8 Government Government type: Federal Republic Capital: New Delhi Administrative divisions: 28 states, 7 union territories Legal system: based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative acts, separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 9 Chief of State: President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (7/02) Executive Branch Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister Election: - President elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of 05/13/09 both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states for a five-year term Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 10 Executive Branch Head of Government: PM Manmohan Singh (5/04) Election: - Prime Minister chosen by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 11 Legislative Branch - Bicameral Parliament/ "Sansad" - Council of States - not more than 250 members, up to 12 of whom are appointed by the president, the remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; 6 year terms - People's Assembly - 545 seats; 543 elected by popular vote, 2 appointed by the President; members serve five-year terms 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 12 Judicial Branch Supreme Court Judges are appointed by the president Remain in office until they reach the age of sixty five 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 13 Political Parties Indian National Congress oldest national party, established in 1855; still largest & ruling party of India Bhartiya Janata Party established in 1952, Hindu nationalist party, sees India as a Hindu state Bahujan Samaj Party established in the 1980s, represents only the "oppressed" classes of India Samajwadi Party established in 1992 Communist Party of India (CPI) strong ties w/ Soviet Union during Cold War Communist Party of India (CPM) Marxist, split from CPI in 1964, stronger than CPI 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 14 Military Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard Various Security/Paramilitary Forces: Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, National Security Guards, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, Special Frontier Force, Central Reserve Police Force, Central Industrial Security Force, Railway Protection Force, and Defense Security Corps 16 years of age for voluntary military service Expenditures (dollar figure): $16.97 billion Expenditures (% of GDP): 2.5% 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 15 Arms Transfers Leading buyer of conventional arms among developing countries in 2004 - ahead of China - $5.7 billion Sale included tanks, submarines, combat aircraft, missiles and ammunition Sharply strengthened US military relations with India since the beginning of the Bush Administration - to help keep China's military advances in check? 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 16 Brief History of India - Indus Valley civilization dates back at least 5000 years, rich culture that carries on still - Invasion of Aryan tribes from the northwest in 1500 BC led to merger with Dravidian inhabitants, thus creating the classical Indian culture 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 17 Brief History of India - Arab incursions in 8th century, Turkish in 12th - Greatly influenced Indian society and culture - European traders begin a long period of mercantilism/colonialism in the late 15th century (completely dominated under British rule by the 19th century) 02-Taj-Mahal-1 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 18 Brief History of Independent India - Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU brought independence in 1947 - Subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of East and West Pakistan - A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 19 Famous Indians "Mahatma" Mohandas K. Gandhi Navin Bapat Aishwarya Ray Naveen Andrews Indira Gandhi Jawarhal Nehru 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 20 Issues Currently Plaguing India - Ongoing dispute with Pakistan over the right to Kashmir - Massive overpopulation (fundamental social, economic, and environmental problem) - Environmental degradation - Extensive poverty (25% of population under poverty line) - Ethnic and religious strife - Hindu-Muslim riots 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 21 October 8, 2005 Earthquake in Pakistan - one of the most destructive in history - death toll in Pakistan: 30,000 India offering all possible assistance for rescue and relief measures Experts (and the Council on Foreign Relations) believe that this outpouring of aid from India to Pakistan could potentially help bring the two nations together. 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 22 05/13/09 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 23 ...
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