Unformatted text preview: Linkages Between Cognition, Social Behavior, and Peer Relationships During Childhood Characteristics of Concrete Operational Thought Executive Control Processes: Information Processing Theory Information-Processing Model Based on computer model Basic components (Figure 1) Basic Control Processes Application to Social Knowledge: Social Information-Processing Neurological Bases (Frontal lobe) Crick and Dodge (1994) Model Model of Information Processing Executive Control Processes (Frontal Cortex) Encoding Type title here Interpretation of cues Type title here Selecting goals Type title here Response access/ Construction Response evaluation Enactment Links Between SIP and Social Behavior Encoding Interpretation Clarification of goals Response access Response evaluation Behavioral enactment All Processing Steps .20 - .35 Behavior Behavior Behavior Behavior Behavior Behavior
.70 - .90 Behavior Important Social Behaviors During Childhood Linkage to Peer Relationships Social Behavior Relationships Importance of Peer Relationships
(Evidence from Development Research) Peers Interactions and Relationships are an Important Socialization Context in which children learn: Importance of Peer Relationships (Evidence from Clinical Research) Problems in Relationships with Peers during Childhood Predict Later-Life Difficulties Some forms of psychopathology: Conduct disorders (rejection, aggression) Depression (rejection) Schizophrenia (extreme social withdrawal) Importance of Peer Relationships: Hypothesized Links to Psychopathology
Problem Behavior Peer Rejection Psychopathology (depression, conduct disorder) Neurological, Cognitive, Affective Disorder Problem Behavior Psychopathology (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) Peer Rejection Levels of Relationships:Friendships Definition: A voluntary reciprocal emotional bond between two persons. Methods of Assessment Observations Time together Quality of interactions Affective tone Interviews with children Adult Ratings Parents Teachers Levels of Relationships:Friendships Characteristics of Friendships Levels of Relationships:Friendships Functions of Friendships Levels of Relationships: Groups Group Relations Gender Differences Females Tendency toward relationship orientation Males Tendency toward group oriented and activities Levels of Relationships: Groups
Social Acceptance - Degree to which a child is liked by the members of his/her peer group Methods of Assessment Average Group Acceptance Ratings from peers (1 to 5 scale) Sociometric Status liking and disliking nominations from peers. Positive "Who do you like the most?" Negative "Who do you like the least?" Social Preference Score (Positive Negative nominations) Levels of Relationships: Groups Social Status Groups Popular (no negative, many positive) - Kids tend to like them (not in an adolescent manner, being popular actually means being well liked) They find that these kids are the most socially skilled. Tend to be inclusive nominated as good leaders and kids that other kids want to play with. Group oriented and follow the rules. In US and Can cultures being independent and assertive could lead to this but other cultures could lead to rejection. Average (no/few negative, some positive) - Majority Neglected (no negative, no positive) - Non Nominated. Not particularly liked or disliked. Not much different than Average kids but are rated more timid. These kids are neglected because they are in the wrong mix of kids and in other situations they would probably be Average or Popular. Rejected (many negative, no positive) - Kids don't like to work or play with these kids. Long term worry about these kids. We are typically worried about these kids who have high levels of aggression. Controversial (many negative, many positive) - Socially, people either love or hate them. Often as aggressive as the rejected kids but usually have a redeeming trait in one of three areas: academics, athletics, or humor. These kids tend to either stay controversial or become rejected. Behaviors that Lead to Social Rejection Aggression (has to be intent to harm) Reactive aggressive aggression in responses to a threat -- real or perceived. Road rage, crimes of passion. Bullying Aggression using aggression in an attempt to dominate or coerce another person. Adulthood: Psychopaths (not because they are angry but as a means to dominate) Instrumental Aggression a using aggression to obtain an object or space. A kid pushing someone out of line. Or a preschooler wants to play with a toy another kid is playing with. Relational Aggression -an attempt to harm another through their relationships. (excluding someone, trying to get other people to dislike someone, spreading rumors) - mostly used among girls because the other types of aggression are extremely taboo in the US. Behaviors that Lead to Social Rejection Strange and/or bizarre behaviors (e.g., blowing nose on t-shirt, repeating strange sounds after they are not funny (armpit farts at first its funny but it loses steam). Disruptive behaviors behaviors that disrupt the activities of peers. (kids going around messing up other kids games or activities. Social Withdrawal - actively withdrawing from peers on a consistent basis. Extremely withdrawn kids who refuse to play with anyone else, not talking about a little timid or shy, kids that really want to be alone. In general -- any behavior that violates a perceived social norm. This rule is what carries cross culturally. ...
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