Dino Midterm Review - The Age of Dinosaurs- Midterm Review...

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The Age of Dinosaurs- Midterm Review Sheet (October 5, 2007) o Scrotum humanum – 1 st known find in 1670, England; thigh bone of a meat eating dino; ppl thought it was a giant human being o Mosasaurus: 1770, large lizard in ocean sediment found o Mary Ann Mantell: 1820s, discovered teeth of Iguanodon o Gideon Mantell: amateur, knew it was the large teeth of plant eating mammal; thought it resembled iguana but bigger o Iguanodon: reptile in land sediment, terrestrial o Megalosaurus: jaw found later on, reptile in land sediment; first dino to be described (1667); meat eating o Sir Richard Owen/ Dinosauria: 1841, invented dinosaurs; recognized them as a group of extinct reptiles; Dinosauria = >5 vertebrae fused to pelvis, terrestrial, erect posture (weight carried by bones, allowing them to be larger) o How/why we reconstruct fossil animals: why – helps us learn/clarify what we know/ don’t know about the lives of animals ; how – start w/ bones, find out which bones are missing/ present & what it must have looked like (bilateral symmetry?) o Comparative anatomy: the study of the modification between animals (all vertebras have a common ancestor); gives basis of anatomical structure in looking at animals o Phylogeny: patterned evolution relationship, how close they are o What features can be reconstructed with some degree of reliability & which are more speculative: reliable- muscles (scars), size, soft structure, body covering, color = speculation o How skeleton works: support/move skeleton; rigid but jointed to adhere to both needs; big animals-support > mobility; durable, made for everyday use o Bone: strong, but still can break, can heal quickly; collagen fiber & hydroxyl apatite o Collagen: complex proteins, flexible o Hydroxyapatite: most of bone, calcium, phosphate, brittle, minerals, strong o Joints: the location at which two or more bones make contact. They are constructed to allow movement and provide mechanical support, and are classified structurally and functionally. o Forces on bone: compression – weight bearing (gravity); tension- weight pulling on bone (gravity) o Cartilage: collagen fibers, glucose; lightness & flexibility, but w/ structure, resists tension, not compression (ex. Nose, ears, lower ribs, joints) o Muscles: moves the skeleton: some insert directly into bones o Tendons: attach some muscles to bone; sometimes too big, so attach through tendon o Ligaments: attach bones to bones o Bilateral symmetry: mirror image o Vertebral column- made up of a small chain of small bones, runs through the back to tail; protects spine; cervical(skull to shoulders), dorsal (end of neck to hips), sacral (sacrum)- actually fused into boney structure; can’t be separated from hip bone o o Aristotle (384-322 BC): observation & experimentation to study animals; nature developed from simplicity to complexity o
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Dino Midterm Review - The Age of Dinosaurs- Midterm Review...

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