REVIEW NOTES FOR THE FINAL
The final will cover all course material, but there will be somewhat more emphasis on material introduced after the second midterm, since you
have not been tested on it before. The final will be worth 200 points, with 100 points for multiple choice questions, and 100 points for fill ins, short answer
and essay questions. As with the midterms, multiple choice questions will draw primarily on the text, the rest will focus on material discussed in lectures
or section. The review notes for the midterms are still important – go over them carefully. Most students will have more than enough time to take the
Start reminding yourself now to (1) RFQ, (2) use the extra time to think carefully about your answers before you start to write, and (3) make
sure your handwriting is completely legible. There is no way you can get points for something if I can’t read it.
Bring two LARGE Blue or Green Books to the final
> LIKELY AREAS FOR SHORT-ANSWER OR ESSAY QUESTIONS
> MULTIPLE CAUSATION. The most straightforward example of this since the second midterm is found in
Milgram’s experiment on obedience. The Prisoners of Silence video, also implies the operation of a number of non-
conscious motives that appear to jointly influence behavior. For example, be able to identify and discuss the various
reasons the parent of an autistic child would continue to believe in Facilitated Communication even after it was
shown to be almost certainly bogus. Earlier examples of multiple causation include the schematic neuron,
neurophysical and social causes that converge in the “eating peanuts” example, the interaction of the Id, Ego, and
Superego in Freud, the many causes that typically influence psychopathology, the many components underlying
aesthetic experience, including Id, social, and cognitive-processing components.
> CORRELATION. Be able to explain the motto “correlation is not causation,” how a correlational study differs from
an experiment, why an experiment gives us more solid information, and nevertheless why correlational studies are
nevertheless so common.
> PSYCHOLOGICAL SCHOOLS. You could well be asked to explain the gist of a psychological school we have
studied, and do this in one of three ways.
(a) Chose and discuss an ILLUSTRATIVE EXPERIMENT, study or other finding associated with the school.
For example, for Ethology, you might discuss an imprinting experiment: for S-O-R Behaviorism, Tolman’s
cognitive maps or latent learning, for Cognitive Psychology, experiments on dichotic listening, priming, or
the serial/parallel distinction.
(b) Discuss a TYPICAL METHOD used by a given school. Be able to explain, for example, how a typical