Psychology - Psychology Chapter 1 Foundations for the Study...

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Psychology Chapter 1 – Foundations for the Study of Psychology Psychology- science of behavior and the mind Behavior- observable actions of a person or animal Mind – an individual’s sensations, perceptions, memories, thoughts, dreams, motives, emotional feelings, and other subjective experiences; subconscious knowledge and operating rules that are built that are built into or stored in the brain and provide the foundation for organizing behavior and conscious experience Science- all attempts to answer questions through systematic collection and logical analysis of objectively observable data I. Three Foundation Ideas for Psychology: A Historical Overview - Psychology is a scientific discipline with three basic ideas: 1) Behavior and mental experiences have physical causes, so they are amendable to physical analysis 2) The way a person behaves , thinks, and feels is modified over time, by the person’s experiences in his or her environment 3) The body’s machinery, which produces behavior and mental experiences, is a product of evolution by natural selection A. The Idea of Physical Causation of Behavior o Religion bound to philosophy>> dualism: human being = material body + immaterial soul 1) Descartes’s Version of Dualism: Focus o the Body a) previously ppl attributed unique human characteristics like body heat and the ability to move to the soul, Descartes challenged it 1) body is an intricate, complex machine that generates its own heat and is capable of moving without influence of soul 2) involuntary responses to stimuli b) argued that human movement is not that much different from those of animals 1) animals do not have thought>>conscious deliberation and judgment c) realizes roles of organs, nerves, and muscles w/o challenging ppl’s belief in the soul 1) said soul resided in a localized area in the brain d) faults 1) how is the soul the reason behind the moving of the body 2) body follows natural law, the soul does not>>soul cannot control body 2) Thomas Hobbes and the Philosophy of Materialism a) materialism = the soul is meaningless, nothing exists but matter and energy b) all human behavior can be understood in terms of physical processes in the body c) conscious thought >> product of brain’s machinery 3) Nineteenth Century Physiology: Learning About the Machine o Physiology – the study of the body’s machinery a) Increased understanding of reflexes 1) 1822 (France), Francois Magendie, nerves entering spinal cord contain two separate pathways a. carrying messages into the central system from the skin’s sensory receptors b. carry messages out to operating muscles 2) reflexology - all human behavior occurs through reflexes a. actions initiated by stimuli in the environment 1. act on act’s on person’s sensory receptors b) The concept of Localization of Function in the Brain 1) specific parts of the brain serve specific functions in the production of mental experience and behavior 2) Johannes Muller – different qualities of sensory experience ->> nerves from different sense organs excite different parts of
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Psychology - Psychology Chapter 1 Foundations for the Study...

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