Psychology notes

Psychology notes - Chapter 9: The Human Intellect-Memory...

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Chapter 9: The Human Intellect-Memory and Consciousness >consciousness: experiencing of one’s own mental events in such a manner that one can report on them to others I. Overview: An Information-Processing Model of the Mind >memory: all of the information in a person’s mind and to the mind’s capacity to store and retrieve that information > modal model of the mind (standard) > memory stores: 3 types of memory- sensory, working (short-term), long-term; where info is held & operated on A. Sensory Memory: The Brief Prolongation of Sensory Experience 1. a separate sensory store for each sensory system holds brief traces of all information registered by that system 2. Unconscious processes may operate on these traces to decide which information to pass on to working memory 3. attention: transports items into working memory so we are conscious of them B. Working Memory: Conscious Perception and Thought 2. short-term memory: information no longer attended to quickly disappears C. Long-Term Memory: The Mind’s Library of Information 1. repository of all that a person knows 2. information here is dormant, being actively processed only when it is brought into working memory 3. unlimited capacity, long duration, passive; opposite of working memory D. Control Processes: The Mind’s Information Transportation Systems 1. attention brings information from sensory memory into working memory; restricts flow from 1 st to 2 nd 2. encoding brings information from working memory into long-term memory; usually not deliberate 3. retrieval brings information from long-term memory into working memory; remembering/recalling II. Attention: The Portal to Consciousness > focus mental resources at hand; monitor stimuli irrelevant to task at hand > preattentive processing: analysis of information for those relevant to task at hand or survival > The Ability to Focus Attention and Ignore the Irrelevant A. Selective Listening 1. cocktail party phenomenon: ability to listen to & understand one person’s voice while disregarding others (usually if there’s a physical difference) B. Selective Viewing 1. aware of general qualities, but not meaning of stimuli 2. gorilla example > The Ability to Shift Attention to Significant Stimuli A. Attending to Information to Auditory Sensory Memory 1. echoic memory: auditory sensory memory a. echo: brief memory trace for a specific sound 2. hear when name mentioned B. Attending to Information in Visual Sensory Memory 1. iconic memory: visual sensory memory a. icon: brief memory trace for a specific visual stimulus 2. memory store must hold visually presented information C. Effect of Practice on Attentional Capacity 1. unconsciously monitor unattended stimuli, in sensory memory so that we can shift our attention if something significant turns up
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Psychology notes - Chapter 9: The Human Intellect-Memory...

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