Functional Groups - Nucleophilic; 2 lone pairs. Basic; if...

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Functional Groups: Preparation for IR spectroscopy Recognizing the important structural features for spectral analysis.
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Bits and Pieces Like all things, molecules are composed of bits and pieces. Molecules are classified into classes by the specific combinations of bits and pieces that they possess in their structure. Important bits and pieces that occur frequently and that have predictable properties are called Functional Groups.
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Functional Groups An atom or specific assemblage of atoms that has reproducible physical and chemical properties. The presence of a specific functional group allows us to predict the behavior of a molecule. Remember: Everything in Organic Chemistry is about structure.
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Example: Hydroxyl Group. }-O-H ; Hydroxyl group, a hydrogen covalently bonded to an oxygen that is covalently bonded to something else. Properties: H-bonds to other hydroxyls and lone-pairs. Acidic; K a depends on to what O is bonded.
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Unformatted text preview: Nucleophilic; 2 lone pairs. Basic; if acid is sufficiently strong. Hydroxyl Group Contd Everything noted for }-O-H is true for all compounds in which it appears. But not all compounds with a }-O-H in their structure fall into the same class. Because the group that the hydroxyl group is bonded to tremendously affects its properties and reactions there are several classes that include a hydroxyl group. Ground Work Definitions: R-{ ; an alkyl group X-{ ; a halogen (}-F, }-Cl, }-Br, or }I) H-O-{ ; a hydroxyl group }-O-{ ; an oxa group }-NO 2 ; a nitro group }-NO; a nitroso group }=O; an oxo group More Basic Functional Groups: Carbonyl group; Cyano group (nitrilo) Aza group Sulfonyl C N } } C O { } N { } S O O { Composite Functional Groups Most functional groups are actually composites of simpler functional groups....
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Functional Groups - Nucleophilic; 2 lone pairs. Basic; if...

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