Final Study Guide

Final Study Guide - Psychology Final Study Guide Chapter 8...

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Psychology Final Study Guide Chapter 8 Operant conditioning: Type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer and weakened if followed by a punisher (associate a response to its consequences) Law of effect: Behavior followed by a favorable consequence becomes more likely to occur in the future and behavior followed by an unfavorable consequence becomes less likely in the future (Edward Thorndike) Skinner box: a small enclosure in which responses of an animal can be recorded and consequences of responses controlled Positive reinforcer: a stimulus that when presented after a response strengthens the response Negative reinforcer: a stimulus that when removed after a response strengthens the response (NOT a punishment) (ex. Fastening your seatbelt so the beeping stops) Punishment: an event that decreases the behavior that it follows Positive Punishment: add a bad stimulus (spanking, parking ticket) Negative punishment: withdraw a good stimulus (no TV, revoke license) Possible problems with Punishment: punishment behavior is not forgotten it is suppressed and although it suppresses unwanted behavior it does not guide one toward more desirable behavior Primary reinforcer: an innately reinforcing stimulus (user satisfies a biological need) Secondary reinforcer: a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power from association with a primary reinforcer (also known as conditioned reinforcer) (ex. If you turn on a light you get food – the light would be the secondary reinforcer) Delayed reinforcer: when you don’t give the reward right after the action is done. Nothing is learned because other things go on between the action and the reward so they are not connected. Continuous reinforcer: every response is reinforced Partial reinforcement: responses are sometimes reinforced, sometimes not (intermittent) Most efficient way for acquiring a response: continuous reinforcement is preferable until a behavior is mastered. Partial reinforcement is more efficient in the long run. Continuous reinforcement has a rapid response but when the reinforcement stops extinction also rapidly occurs Effect partial reinforcement has on resistance to extinction: creates more persistence because you never know when you will get the reward Extinction: gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response Resistance to extinction: organism continues to make responses after reinforcement is stopped Token: token societies or token forms of payment Shaping: an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal (gradually guide an animals actions toward a desired behavior) (ex. Rats- bringing food closer and closer to the bar until they touch the bar to get the food) 4 basic schedules of reinforcement 1. Fixed Ratio: reinforcer is given after a fixed number of non-reinforced responses
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2. Variable Ratio: reinforcer is given after a variable number of non-reinforced responses (never know when you will get the reward) (high rate of responding for
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This note was uploaded on 07/09/2008 for the course PSYC 1001 taught by Professor King,brett during the Spring '08 term at Colorado.

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Final Study Guide - Psychology Final Study Guide Chapter 8...

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