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study guide exam 2

study guide exam 2 - Ragtime and roots of Jazz ragtime...

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Ragtime and roots of Jazz ragtime blues ragtime songs syncopation Scott Joplin – centered in St. Louis, wrote Maple Leaf Rag “blue note” - these blues conventions were important concepts in jazz music 12-bar blues 4 bars I 2 + 2 bars IV 2 + 2 bars V Improvisation - to compose and perform simultaneously, never play the same solo twice, swing – spirit, feel, groove, jazzy. Rhythmic groove based on uneven triplet eighth notes, preponderance of syncopation, over a constant, steady rhythmic structure King Oliver – Dippermouth Blues “traditional jazz” collective improvisation stride piano (why is it called this?) – like ragtime but stronger rhythms and more improvised novelty piano Louis Armstrong – popularized important elements of jazz including… head arrangements followed by improvised solos over repeated chord changes, scat singing “head arrangement” scat singing What about ragtime is European and what is African-American? What did band music, ragtime, and blues contribute to jazz? Swing, Bop, and More “Swing Era” – generally talking about NYC Count Basie – pianist of special skill, Riff: a short melodic figure, comes back, stride piano bassline Duke Ellington – began as syncopated rag orchestra. Growls, ya yas with plungers. KO- KO in rare key of Eb minor Benny Goodman – clarinetist, known for breaking color barrier Billie Holiday – relaxed subtle style, behind the beat. Strange fruit, protest song Ella Fitzgerald – sang at the Apollo Theater, took over Chick Webb’s group “riff” - bop (be-bop) – small ensembles, thinned rhythm section (just piano, bass, and drums) more improvisation, Fast cool jazz – light wind sound, thinner, slower walking pace tempo “third stream” – jazz with classical element
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fusion – jazz borrowing from rock, electronic instruments, straightforward beat, high energy free jazz – improvisation reigns supreme, return to traditional jazz, free from chord progression modal jazz – virtually static harmony, longer improvisations
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