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exam 1 study guide

exam 1 study guide - Study Guide for Quiz#1 Lecture...

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Study Guide for Quiz #1 Lecture Material 8/28/06-9/11/06 Book Chapters Chapters 1-4 of Understanding Biotechnology Important concepts 1. Length scales and sizes of things such as small molecules (like water), proteins, viruses, bacteria, transistors, hair, organisms, etc. 2. Biomimetics o basic concept strategy based on the principles of biological design (not techniques, not necessarily using biological materials or methods directly o advantages for future technology molecular machines (small) spontaneous, parallel fabrication (cheap) combinatorial, trial and error design strategy (evolutionary) factories (cells) that respond to signals (smart) factories that make copies themselves (self-replicating) o self-organization (self-assembly) -nature has evolved a novel approach to fabrication that is massively parallel and works with very small objects 3. Biotechnology- any technology associated with the manipulation of biological systems (using living organisms as “factories”) o Definition - production of commercial products generated by the metabolic action of biological organisms (often microorganisms) o Examples: mass production of pharmaceuticals (insulin) genetically modified crops disease-resistant livestock o traditional vs. modern (molecular) traditional – fermentation, production of silk, production of wool modern – direct genetic control of the functional organisms (based on genetic engineering o Genetic modification – improving biological products using traditional methods of genetic modification (ex. selective breeding, plant grafting, plant cloning) 4. Polymers o Basic definition – very large molecules that are made up of smaller parts (monomers) that can be linked together in various ways. (linear chains are most common) o examples – polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, Teflon o basic structures (linear homopolymer etc.) – all monomers are the same
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conformation – the monomers may be connected in a linear way, but the overall shape of the molecule is not necessarily linear random coil – typical when there are no specific interactions between monomers 5. Biomolecules o important examples: DNA – the full (encoded) set of instructions for the organism (specific shapes that match with another particular one like a “lock and key”) RNA – 1) contains a copy of instructions for a particular machine. 2) builds a machine from the instructions Proteins – actually machinery of the cell/organism (sequence of amino acids in a protein is called the primary structure. Proteins self-assemble into complicated shapes (tertiary structures)) o basic structure and sizes water lipid (molecules that comprise cell membranes) protein (hundreds of nm long extended, 2-10 nm in diameter folded) DNA (can be µm long when unfolded) o self-organization into specific structures o DNA structure and hybridization DNA has 4 possible side-groups called nucleotides
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