exam 3 study guide

exam 3 study guide - Study Guide for Exam #3...

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Study Guide for Exam #3 10/23/06-11/13/06 1. Proteins What are the typical functions and types of proteins? How might they related to technological applications Understand the levels of structure (primary, secondary, tertiary) and the interactions that lead to them Primary - the sequence of side chains Amino acid sequence Secondary - portions assemble into specific substructures Alpha helix or beta pleated sheet Tertiary - side chains interact and fold the chain into an overall shape It aligns itself to be the most stable Quaternary - multiple molecules combine to make a functional unit Molecular recognition in proteins (binding pockets. ..) They bond in different ways, creating different shapes Alpha helix (cylindrical) Beta sheet (folded paper) C, A, G and T are NOT part of a protein molecule 2. Spider silk structure and properties Stronger than steel More resilient than any synthetic polymer fiber Biocompatible Biodegradable A composite made of crystalline and amorphous fibroin protein 3. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria: How is it caused? How can it be prevented? Only resistant bacteria survive, and they reproduce rapidly Prevented by not using antibiotics (for viral sicknesses or in general) and finishing entire prescriptions Cyclic peptides as antibiotics Incorporate positively charged residues on the exterior to target the negative charges in bacterial membranes Tubes kill bacteria by punching holes through cell membranes allowing contents of the cells to leak out 4. Spongiform encepalopathy diseases: What are they? How are they transmitted? What are prions? They are degenerative brain diseases They are transmitted through food (most likely) Prions are the mysterious infectious agent responsible for these diseases (regular proteins that are just folded wrong) 5. Enzymes and chemical reactions What is an enzyme? Proteins that facilitate chemical reactions What does an enzyme do? What does a catalyst do? They break apart a molecule into two pieces Combine two molecules to make a larger one
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What is a chemical reaction? The converting of an initial substance (reactants) into a different final substance (product) How do enzymes work? (Energy barriers, transitions state, etc.) The binding pocket of the enzyme holds a substrate in such a way as to facilitate a chemical reaction Transition state (highest point of energy) Energy barriers (lock and key) not easily done, so they need help to occur 1. Increase temperature 2. Provide mechanical help Enzyme inhibition Life-savers and deadly poisons 1. Make a molecule that is shaped like the transition state 2. This molecule will fit in the enzyme’s binding pocket and clog it up so that the
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This note was uploaded on 07/09/2008 for the course CHEN 1000 taught by Professor Degrazia,j during the Spring '04 term at Colorado.

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exam 3 study guide - Study Guide for Exam #3...

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