Final exam Study Guide

Final exam Study Guide - Study Guide for the Final Exam...

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Study Guide for the Final Exam Lecture Material All lectures Book Chapters Chapters 1-7, 9-11, 14 of Understanding Biotechnology National Geographic Article, Nano's Big Future Chapters 2-11 of Energy Switch Important concepts 1. Length scales and sizes of things such as small molecules (like water), proteins, viruses, bacteria, transistors, hair, organisms, etc. o The smallest devices currently in mass production are the transistors on a microchip (e.g. Pentium processor). They are about 100 nm in size. A bacterium is about 2,000 nm in size. A human hair is about 50,000 nm thick. o These transistors are so small that we can no longer see them with an ordinary microscope. o Nanoworld, microworld, macroworld Small molecule Virus Bacterium Animal cell Plant cell 2. Biomimetics o basic concept - a strategy based on the principles of biological design, not necessarily using biological materials or methods directly. These designs are powerful because 1) the machines are tiny – individual molecules and 2) nature has evolved a novel approach to fabrication that is massively parallel and works with very small objects Ex. Velcro o advantages for future technology small molecular machines spontaneous, parallel fabrication (cheap) combinatorial, trial and error design strategy (evolution) factories (cells) that respond to signals (smart) factories that make copies of themselves (self-replicating) o self-organization 3. Biotechnology o Definition – using living organisms as “factories.” Production of commercial products generated by the metabolic action of biological organisms.
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o examples mass production of pharmaceuticals genetically modified crops that resist pests and diseases disease-resistant livestock engineered microbes for environmental remediation microbes producing commodity chemicals o traditional vs. modern (molecular) Traditional – fermentation, production of silk, wool 1. selective breeding of livestock 2. plant grafting and cloning/hybridization Modern Molecular – based on genetic engineering (i.e. the direct genetic control of the functional organisms) 4. Polymers o basic definition – very large molecules that are made up of smaller parts (monomers) that can be linked together in various ways (macromolecules) Sizes: water, lipid, protein, DNA o examples polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, Teflon ( linear homopolymer) o basic structures (linear homopolymer etc.) linear homopolymer – all monomers are the same Copolymers – containing more than one type of monomer 5. Biomolecules o important examples: DNA, RNA, proteins DNA – the full (encoded) set of instructions for the organism RNA – contains a cop of instructions for a particular machine and builds a machine from those instructions Proteins – actual machinery of the cell/organims o basic structure and sizes o self-organization into specific structures
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Final exam Study Guide - Study Guide for the Final Exam...

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