200 Things to Know to Pass the Chem Regents

200 Things to Know to Pass the Chem Regents - 200 Things to...

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200 Things to Know to Pass the Chemistry Regents 1. Protons are positively charged (+) with a mass of 1 amu. Example: Which has the greatest nuclear charge? Cl-35 Ar-40 K-39 Ca-40 2. Neutrons have no charge and a mass of 1 amu. 3. Electrons are small and are negatively charged (-) with a mass of almost 0 amu. . nucleons ). Which has the greatest number of nucleons? Sn-119 Sb-122 Te-128 I-127 5. Electrons are found in “clouds” ( orbitals ) around an atom’s nucleus. Where is most of the mass of an atom found? Where is most of the size (volume) of an atom found? 6. The mass number is equal to an atom’s number of protons and neutrons added together. What is the mass number of an atom with 18 protons and 22 neutrons? 7. The atomic number is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. Which has the greatest atomic number? S Cl Ar K 8. The number of neutrons = mass number – atomic number. Which correctly represents an atom of neon containing 11 neutrons? 11 Ne 21 Ne 20 Ne 22 Ne 9. In a neutral atom the number of protons = the number of electrons. 10. Isotopes are atoms with equal numbers of protons, but differ in their neutron numbers. Two isotopes of the same element will have the same number of neutrons and electrons, neutrons and nucleons, protons and nucleons, protons and electrons 11. Cations are positive (+) ions and form when a neutral atom loses electrons. They are smaller than their parent atom. Which of the following will form an ion with a smaller radius that that of its atom? Cl N Br Ba 12. Anions are negative ions and form when a neutral atom gains electrons. They are larger than their parent atom. Which electron configuration is correct for a fluoride ion? 2–7 2–8 2–8–1 2–6 13. Ernest Rutherford’s gold foil experiment showed that an atom is mostly empty space with a small, dense, positively charged nucleus. 14. J.J. Thompson discovered the electron and developed the “plum-pudding” model of the atom. + - + - + - + - + particles spread throughout - + - + entire atom.
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15. Dalton’s model of the atom was a solid sphere of matter that was uniform throughout. 16. The Bohr Model of the atom placed electrons in “planet-like” orbits around the nucleus of an atom. 17. The current, wave-mechanical model of the atom has electrons in “clouds” (orbitals) around the nucleus. 18. Electrons can be excited to jump to higher energy levels. They emit energy as light when they fall from higher energy levels back down to lower ( ground state ) energy levels. Bright line spectra are produced. 19. Elements are pure substances composed of atoms with the same atomic number. They cannot be decomposed.
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200 Things to Know to Pass the Chem Regents - 200 Things to...

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