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The oppositional gaze: black female spectatorsSummary Bell Hooks herself is black, and she introduces the topic to us by sharingfrom her own experiences. As a child, she was punished for staring,because certain looks were seen as confrontational or challenges toauthority. She gives us further background information about how whiteslave owners punished enslaved black people for looking. She linked howthis traumatic relationship to the gaze had informed black parenting andblack spectatorship in the modern day. All of these attempts to stop blackpeople from gazing produced an overwhelming longing to look, a rebelliousdesire, an oppositional gaze. That is what Bell Hooks’ paper is all about.The “gaze” has been and is a site of resistance for colonized black peopleglobally. When most black people in the United States first had the opportunity tolook at film and television, it was the first time that they could look at whitepeople without being interrogated. However, watching television at all was