6_Biological_Molecules-S - Biological Molecules What are the building blocks of life Why From the smallest single-celled organism to the tallest tree

6_Biological_Molecules-S - Biological Molecules What are...

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Unformatted text preview: Biological Molecules What are the building blocks of life? Why? From the smallest single-celled organism to the tallest tree, all life depends on the properties and reactions of four classes of organic (carbon-based) compounds—carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. These organic molecules are the building blocks of all living things, and are responsible for most of the structure and functions of the body, including energy storage, insulation, growth, repair, communication, and transfer of hereditary information. Simple organic molecules can be joined together to form all the essential biological molecules needed for life. Model 1 – Molecules of Life Carbohydrates (monosaccharides) OH OH O H H H OH OH H HO H H HO H C OH HO Glycerol HO OH OH H Fructose O H (CH 2) 12CH 3 O H C C (CH 2) 7CH=CH(CH 2) 7CH 3 H O H C C O CH 3 C H (CH 2) 14CH 3 CH 3 OCO(CH 2) 7CH=CH(CH 2) 7CH 3 O Proteins Fatty acids (amino acids) Triglyceride (fat or oil) Variable R Variable R side chain side chain Proteins (amino acids) CH3 H N H C O C H CH2SH O H N H OH Alanine C R N H OH H Cysteine O N O OH Phosphate group H C OH Carboxylic Carboxylic acid group group acid Amine group N O P C Amine NH2 group N HO O H C Cysteine Alanine Nucleic acids (nucleotides) Biological Molecules HO H OH C C H Galactose O H C OH H C O OH O H C OH OH H H OH Glucose Lipids H H OH HO O H HO Nitrogen base N Sugar OH OH 1 1. Use Model 1 to show which atoms are present in each type of molecule by listing the symbol for each atom included. Carbohydrate has been done for you. a. Carbohydrate— C, H, O c. Amino acid— C, H, O, N b. Lipid— d. Nucleic acid— C, H, O C, H, O, N, P 2. Which type of molecule includes an example with a long-chain carbon backbone? Lipid 3. In the molecule referred to in the previous question, what is the dominant element attached to the carbon backbone? Hydrogen 4. The fatty acid chain of the lipids is often referred to as a hydrocarbon chain. Discuss with your group why the chain is given this name and write a one-sentence definition for a hydrocarbon. A hydrocarbon has a central chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon. 5. Which molecule has a central carbon atom with four different components around it? Amino acid 6. Which molecule has a sugar, nitrogenous base, and phosphate group? Nucleic acid 7. Discuss with your group members some similarities among all four types of molecules. List as many as you can. All four types of molecules contain C, H, and O as symbols. They all connect to each other in one way or another. 8. What is the chemical formula of the first carbohydrate molecule shown? C6H12O6 9. What three structural groups shown do all amino acids have in common? Amine group, carboxylic acid, and r side chain 10. There are 20 naturally-occurring amino acids, and each one only varies in the structure of the R side chain. Two amino acids are shown in Model 1. What are the R side chains in each? CH3 and CH2-SH Read This! During chemical reactions, the bonds in molecules are continually broken and reformed. To break a bond, energy must be absorbed. When bonds are formed, energy is released. If more energy is released than absorbed during a chemical change, the process can be used as a source of energy. A general rule for processes such as respiration is the more carbon atoms there are in a molecule, the more energy that molecule can provide to the organism when it is used as food. 2 POGIL™ Activities for High School Biology 11. Using the information from above, is a carbohydrate or a lipid more likely to be a good source of energy for an organism? A lipid. The long hydrocarbon has many more C—C and C—H bonds, which are all a source of energy. Model 2 – Biochemical Reactions A. B. OH R CH2 OH O H H OH H + H HO OH H H O H OH Glucose Glucose H OH H Fructose Fructose O H CH2 OH H H H H O + HO O CH2 OH OH OH N H C C OH H Amino acid 22 Amino acid R N Sucrose Sucrose C. OH H HO H H + C O H Amino acid11 Amino acid OH H C H CH2 OH OH OH N HO R O H C R O C NH C H H O C OH + HO 2 HO 2 Dipeptide Dipeptide H Peptide Bond Glycosidic Bond O H H C O H C OH H C C OH H CH 3 Monoglyceride Monoglyceride + O HO C (CH 2) 14CH 3 Fatty acid Fatty acid O H H C O H C OH H C O C CH 3 (CH 2) 14CH 3 H + HO 2 O Ester Bond Diglyceride Diglyceride Biological Molecules 3 12. What are the reactants of reaction A? Glucose and Frutcose 13. What are the products of reaction A? Sucrose and water 14. Each of the reactants in reaction A is a single sugar molecule, also called a monosaccharide. What prefix before saccharide would you use to describe sucrose? Di- 15. What are the reactants of reaction B? Two amino acids 16. When the two molecules in reaction B are joined together, what other two molecules are produced? Water and a dipeptide 17. What product do all three reactions in Model 2 have in common? They all produce water Read This! When sugars are joined together the new bond that forms is a glycosidic bond. When amino acids are joined the new bond that forms is a peptide bond. When fatty acids are joined to a glycerol the bond that holds them is an ester bond. 18. On the diagrams in Model 2, circle and label the glycosidic, peptide, and ester bonds. 19. These reactions are all referred to as dehydration synthesis or condensation reactions. With your group develop an explanation for why these terms are used to describe these reactions. All the reactions cause water to be removed, therefore, the molecule is dehydrated or water is “condensed” from the molecule 20. These reactions can also be reversed, breaking the large molecule into its individual molecules. What substance would need to be added in order to reverse the reaction? Water 21. Lysis means to split or separate. What prefix would you add to lysis to mean separate or split using water? Hydro- 22. Using your answers to the previous two questions, what word is used to describe the reaction that uses water to break apart a large molecule? Hydrolysis 4 POGIL™ Activities for High School Biology Extension Questions 23. Metabolism is the collective term used to describe all the chemical reactions taking place inside living organisms. Why is water so important for metabolic reactions? Without water essential chemical reaction would not be able to take place in the body. Water is necessary for hydrolytic reactions that occur during the breakdown of large organic molecules. 24. We store excess food in our body either in the form of carbohydrates (in muscles and the liver) or as fat (adipose tissue). When our body needs additional energy it uses the carbohydrate source first as a source of “quick” energy, then the fat. Why do you think carbohydrates are used as a source of quick energy rather than fat? Use complete sentences and scientific terminology in your response. It takes less energy input to break the bonds in carbohydrates compared to the amount of energy that is yielded so there is a net release of energy. Fats require a greater energy input to break the bonds, so although fats contain more energy, the energy in carbohydrates is easier to acsess. 25. Look at the two types of fatty acids below, saturated and unsaturated. What is the difference between the two? H H H C H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H C H H C H H C H H C H O HO HO Saturated Saturated Fatty Fatty Acid Acid O Unsaturated FattyAcid Acid Unsaturated Fatty Saturated fatty acids have only single carbon bonds in the hydrocarbon chain; unsaturated have a double carbon bond. 26. Saturated fats are solid fats, like the animal fats lard and butter, whereas unsaturated fats are more fluid and form oils, such as vegetable oil. Trans fats are plant oils that are artificially solidified to make them suitable for baking purposes. In recent years trans fats have been associated with negative health issues and are not as widely used. Explain in simple molecular terms what would have to be done to a plant oil to transform it to a trans fat. Hydrogen molecules are added to unsaturated plant lipids by a process called hydrogenation. The addition of hydrogen eliminates some double bonds and makes the lipid more saturated, with a higher melting point and so more suitable for baking. 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