– Character in Virgil’s of the Aeneid, where he goes to Italy after the fall of troy. He reached Carthage and had romance with
its queen but abandoned her and reached Italy. Written to sing the glory of Rome and Augustus’ ability.
- the right of Roman Patriarchs to have complete control within the family (even over life and death).
– But these concessions are not enough for the Plebians, they really want the roman laws to be written down and
publically displayed, the magistrates cannot “practice law” in their own arbitrary way, and thus in 451, the senate appoints a
committee of 10 to draw up the laws, finish the law in 450: the Twelve Tables: engraved in 12 tablets, posted in the Roman Forum.
1) the importance is not its legal innovation, but the mere fact of publication: not everyone can know what the law was,
and the magistrates had to follow it.
2) constitutes a primitive code, for agrarian people
3) are of enormous and lasting importance: for centries, the roman school boys had to learn them by heart. Levy calls
them with only some exaggerations: “the source of all public and private law”: it remains the foundation of Roman law
for nearly 1000 years.
(Hortensian law) –Struggle of Order comes to end in 287 with the passage of law:
(287): binding on all
Roman citizens without ratification by Senate
: resolutions of the plebs were only binding by the plebianas, unless they were ratified by the senate: this
was changed by this hortensia: it now gives plebiscite now gives the force of laws binding on the entire roman
people now, it’s not just the plebians.
This becomes law immediately by passage; doesn’t need the ratification of the senate any more
They are now politically equal as the Roman people, the patricians, therefore, full political equality brings the
struggle of the orders to an end.
– Commander of Spanish who crosses Ebro and gets Seguntum. Crosses alps invates italy and at the 216 battle of Cannae
he destroys 70-80k troops while losing only 6k. He held at Brunedicium and goes to Africa in 204 and defeated at Zama.
– Battle of the 2
Punic war in 216 where Hannibal destroys 70-80k troops while losing only 6k.
– 202 Battle Scipio defeats Hannibal and ends the war
Tribune of Ti. Gracchus
: decline of the small Italian farmer and military man power. To serve in the Roman legions, you had to
own a minimum amount of land. However, the number of qualified citizens decreased sharply because small farmers were forced to
sell off their farms and larger number of casualties in the Punic and other wars.
1) proposal of Agranian Bill: limit to 320 acres, and additional 160 acres for each, up to two sons; break up the
ladifundia, and reestablish the smaller farners of the land; increase the army
2) bill was passed, but the Agrigranian Commission was intentionally underfunded by the senate
3) but him and his supporters, King just died and bequeathed his wealth, increasing the wealth of the Roman State. Tib.