Lecture Notes

Lecture Notes - 1/10/07 LECTURE 2: MESOPOTAMIA: SUMER,...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: 1/10/07 LECTURE 2: MESOPOTAMIA: SUMER, AKKAD, BABYLON Mesopotamia: greek; land between the rivers: Tigris and Euphrates Rise of civilization: 4 th Millenium B.C. in Mesopotamia (the 5 elements below are all present I the rise of civilization) religion social distinctions (social class) economic specialization (farmers, artisans, etc) Division of Labor arts (sculpture, architecture) literacy (comes last, of all 5 elements) *Geography (key to why civilization rose in the Mesopotamia region) Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent Fertile Crescent: the Eastern Mediterranean Why? Fertile soil; settled agricultural condition Sumer, Akkad, Babylon Sumer: cities first appear in 3,500 (Ur, Uruk, etc) Culustery of wall made of mud-brick(dominant material due to limited stone and timber), which was built of bricks from river mud, baked hard in the sun Foundation of cities and political organization Political organizations Sumer: definite political organization and hierarchy. Chiefman( ensi / lugal = king) a form of monarchy However, government is closely linked to religion(theocracy: city governed officially by god, via early rep. of a king) King is shown as the chosen one; they are closely assoc. with the priest of the city King and priests form the highest socio-economic class Sumerians had a lot of gods Sumerian god worships in the temple birth of monumental architectures literally, built the house of gods. City-states (early Mesopotamians, since they are not greek, did not call it city-states, instead, they called it Sumer(south) and Akkad(north) later known as Babylonia, after the formation of confederacy Independent political lands Produce and sustains within the city Watered by the irrigation cannals Majority of the citizens are farmers, but there were rulers, priest, and artisans Religion Polytheism(multiple gods) and anthropomorphism(zigguratstatue of god, him/herself): gods have human-form Such polytheism and hierarchy reflects human society clearly influenced Greek and Israelite religion theocracy Enuma Elish (When On High) world arose from water of chaos, order of creation: gods, sky, earth, and human beings) Chief Sumerian gods: Ahnu(sky); Enlil(storm); Einana(earth); Enki(water and wisdom) Sumerians have a lot of gods; we know a lot about them because they are literate(first writing consisted of pictogramsimages symbolizing what they have portrayed pictograms words individual syllables writing cuneiform writing. Cuneiform writing(Latin: wedged-shaped) wrote w/ wedge-shaped stylus and wrote with wet clay beginning of Code of Hammurabi Epic of Gilgamesh creation: Ut-Napishtim(possibly Noah?; aka Babylonian Noah; actually, Sumerian Noah) and the Flood Story of Flood: closely resembles Biblical story of the flood Enlil, god of the storms, decides to flood the earth Ut-Napishtim(man) favored by the god Eahe, and thus saved Gilgamesh and Enkidu May have been a real story...
View Full Document

Page1 / 27

Lecture Notes - 1/10/07 LECTURE 2: MESOPOTAMIA: SUMER,...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online