Consider the role of geography in the development of early civilizations. How did geographic forces influence the development of Mesopotamian and Egyptian society, politics, and culture? Civilization usually rises where there is a condition in which people can settle. From the early histories of man, we see the great revolution from a hunter-gatherer via domestication and agriculture near geographic areas surrounded by water, giving rise to villages and early forms of civilizations. Thus, geography is key to the rise of civilization. Geography has both nourished and threatened the Sumerians. The fertile crescent created by the Tigris and Euphrates River allowed people to settle due to beneficial agricultural conditions, but the unpredictable and frequent river roar over their banks, and their open land’s vulnerability to invasion influenced the Sumerians politically, socially, and culturally. The unpredictability of the flooding made the Sumerians to be very dependent on their gods and rulers for some order and stability. The Sumerians built ziggurats to please their city patron god, and they thought of their kings as a divine gift from god. However, such resulted in great pessimism, which is well reflected in the
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