Chapter 20 - Chapter 20: The Catholic Reformation and the...

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Chapter 20: The Catholic Reformation and the Baroque Style Late 16 th / 17 th Century History: Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) – war between Protestants and Catholics Catholic Reformation – internal reform and reorganization of the Catholic Church Counter Reformation – evangelical campaign of the Catholic Church to win back those who became Protestant Ignatius Loyola – his writing, Spiritual Exercises (1548) are on page 510. He was a religious teacher and hermit who would travel to Jerusalem to convert Muslims to Christianity. He founded the Society of Jesus (1530s). It was the most important monastic order during the Catholic Reformation. Followers were called Jesuits . Jesuits believed in fundamental Catholic dogma and traditional teachings of the Church. They swore allegiance to the pope and were the most influential missionary society of early modern times. Jesuits helped to destroy Protestantism in France, S. Germany, and Europe. They were also the prime intermediaries between Europe and Asia from the 16 th - 19 th centuries. Council of Trent (1545-1563) – general Catholic Church council that reasserted traditional Catholic ideas and beliefs. Index Expurgatorius - list of books judged to be heretical and forbidden The Inquisition was revived during this time where torture was used to convert people to Catholicism. By 1606, the Japanese outlawed Christianity because of the disruptive European efforts to win trading privileges in Japan. By 1624, almost all Westerners were thrown out of Japan. In the Americas, Catholicism went hand-in-hand with colonization. Miracle of the Virgin Guadalupe – she is/was believed to be a dark-skinned Virgin Mary who appeared in a vision to a Mexican-Indian (Native American) peasant named Juan Diego who had recently lost his wife. It became the most important religious cult in history. In literature, there was a new emphasis on heightened spirituality and personal visionary experience. Teresa of Avila – she was a Spanish Carmelite nun who traveled a lot and was often
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called “the roving nun.” In her later years, she was a visionary and she described her visions passionately as a oneness with God. Late 16 th / 17 th Century Art: I. Mannerist Style: With the Catholic Reformation, there was a large surge of artistic activity, especially in Spain and Italy. Mannerism
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Chapter 20 - Chapter 20: The Catholic Reformation and the...

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