Chapter 22-23 - Chapter 22-23 The Baroque in the Protestant North The Scientific Revolution and the New Learning Protestant North(England the

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Chapter 22-23: The Baroque in the Protestant North The Scientific Revolution and the New Learning Protestant North (England the Netherlands and N. Germany) Northern Europe preferred art that was more somber with no theatricality or ornamentation. It was almost the opposite of the Italian Baroque (Ch. 20) and the French Baroque (Ch. 21). Protestant (non-Catholic) Christianity as prevalent in this area and there were many denominations. England - History: James I (1566-1625) – King of England (after Elizabeth I) and part of the Stuart family Charles I (1600-1649) – son of James I. He alienated Parliament by governing over a decade without their approval. Puritans did not like him and they supported Parliament’s attack of Charles (there was a civil war between 1642-1648). He was executed for treason. Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) – Puritan general who led the “Commonwealth” government after the death of Charles I James II (1633-1701) – Stuart king after Cromwell died. He tried to fill Parliament with Catholics and people rebelled. He was expelled. William of Orange – ruler of the Netherlands who married Mary, James II of England’s Protestant daughter so that he became the king of the Netherlands and England Bill of Rights – after the “Glorious Revolution” of 1688 this prohibited the king from suspending parliamentary laws Toleration Act of 1689 – guaranteed freedom to worship non-Anglican denominations. During this time ¼ of London’s inhabitants (approx. ¼ million) could not read or write. London had some of the finest libraries and theaters in W. Europe, but stage plays were suppressed due to the Protestants and many old theaters were torn down (like Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre). 1666 Fire of London – this fire destroyed ¾ of the city and it thought to be started by a fire in the middle of the night in a baker’s house. There was large-scale building activity to rebuild and modernize London after the fire.
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England – Literature: King James Bible (1611) – English translation of the Bible. One of the most influential events of the 17 th century. A committee of 54 scholars was recruited by James I who produced it. The language is often called “majestic.” John Donne (1571-1631) – poet who converted to Anglicanism and became a priest of the Church of England at St. Paul’s Cathedral in London. He liked to use metaphors to compare two apparently dissimilar objections and these were often considered to be surprising and sometimes shocking. He borrowed images from science and critics and called it “metaphysical.” John Milton (1608-1674) – devout Puritan humanist, poet, political activist who served as the Secretary to the English Council of State. His most famous work is Paradise Lost and in his later years when he was blind, he wrote Paradise Regained . Paradise Lost
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This note was uploaded on 07/12/2008 for the course HUMANITIES 2230 taught by Professor Goldman during the Spring '08 term at Tallahassee Community College.

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Chapter 22-23 - Chapter 22-23 The Baroque in the Protestant North The Scientific Revolution and the New Learning Protestant North(England the

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