exam2studyguide

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http://localhost:8888/classes/ast111/exam2stu. .. 1 of 3 7/12/08 11:38 PM AST 111: MWF 9:40-10:30 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 2 1. YOU MUST NOT USE YOUR LAPTOP OR YOUR CELLPHONE (ReRead the Header information given on Study Guide 1) Chapter 5. Newton, Galileo, and Gravity (Skip Einstein) a. When was Newton born? b. Know about Galileo and the experiments that he performed. He learned that falling bodies are accelerated, that the amount of acceleration did not depend on the mass of the object, and that motion was as natural as standing still. c. Know Newton = s 3 laws of motion. What is momentum? Why is velocity not the same thing as speed? What is acceleration? What does F=ma mean? What happens if we apply the same amount of force to objects with different masses? Be familiar with Table 5-1 d. Know the Law of Gravity. What is an inverse square law? How is the recoil of a rifle explained by Newton = s third law? What about a rocket launch? e. Why do we talk about an orbiting space craft as being in A Free Fall @ ? f. What is the circular velocity of an object in orbit? Remember that A r @ is the distance from the center of the earth, sun, etc to the satellite. What is the distance from the center of the Earth to an object in Geosynchronous orbit? Why do we care about Geosynchronous orbits? (Pages 94-95) g. The different kinds of orbits in an inverse-square-law force are ellipse, circle, parabola, hyperbola, straight line. Some are closed and some are open. The escape speed is that speed that allows a space craft to escape from a planet. That does not mean that it has escaped from the gravity of the planet. Just that, if it is traveling at that speed or faster, it will never fall back to the planet. h. Read how Newton re-discussed Kepler = s laws and > explained = them. What does Kepler = s Third law look like after Newton worked on it. How can we use it to determine the mass of the Sun, of Jupiter, the Earth, binary stars, . .. (discussed in class)?
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