S\u00e9ance 4 - Sance 4 The point regarding the caliphate and the sunni political model what happenned is a de facto secularisation At the end ulama on the

Su00e9ance 4 - Sance 4 The point regarding the caliphate...

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Séance 4 The point regarding the caliphate and the sunni political model : what happenned is a de facto secularisation . At the end: ulama on the one hand and the Caliph/sultan on the other hand. Those actors follow a political logic and the others a religious logic. The ulama accept a de facto secularised order without legitimazing it. It happened very early and it is seen by ulama as not legitimate. Nomocracy: the rule of divine law, around the sharia: reconcile, according to ulamas, the values and politics. Ulama’s model is in contradiction with a secularized reality . In Islam, politics and religion are not mixed > WHAT ARE WE TALKING ABOUT? History? Tradition? Texts? Sufism: in Sunni Islam. Mystical dimension of sunnism. You can know God through experience, notion of transe. Physical connection to God through practices. From the 11 Th century, suffism became extremely widespread. Sufi Sheikh: teach the method of suffism, how to attain those trances. Sheikh have kind of power, he can intercede in your favour ith god, even when he is dead. Strong presence of sufi practices and they get organized through the sufi brotherhood (12 th century). The ottomans: form of institutionalization of those groups. Also to control them. Brotherhood that extent in the region, some are more esoteric. Dikhr. Extreme experiences that bring you closer to god. Many kinds of Sufism. Some are veru orthodow without exuberances. Other would swallow snakes and swords. The way people practice islam has been veryu much influenced by Sufism. Shia, by nature, are much more mystical, esoteric than sunnis. Much closer to sufis 19 th : decline of the ottoman empire. “The sick man of Europe”. Everyone prevented it from collapsing because they thought the others could make profit of it (imperial strategies). Bargains that lead to the disintegration of the ottoman empire (i want that part, me that one and so on). Attempt of the Ottoman empire to stop the decline. This attempt is linked to the Tanzimat > reforms, reorganisation. The idea is to be more like Europe: to import European ideas. The first place to do it is Egypt. Egypt belongs to the ottoman empire but is decentralized (Mohammed Ali): 1805-1848. JHe is the first to implement the tanzimat the Egypt. The ottoman empire is like a federation and Egypt is part of it but decentralized. He come just after the French invasion. The French fail because Egypt and british ally against the French. Mohammed Ali get that Egypt is under threat and they have to modernize, and modernize under European lines. He reforms the state completely. He introduces circonscription in the army, tactics. He needs to train people. He sends students to be trained in France. Especially military students and ti bring military knowledge in Egypt. He believes that he needs to create a modern bureaucracy so he send student at ENA and so on. He establishes, in Egypt, the first modern (as Europe defines it) education system. At that time, education system is under ulamas. He creates an education which is no more just religious. Duality: produce a new class > intelligentia which

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