S\u00e9ance 6 - Sance 6 The baathist host Khomeini in Iraq because Iraq is opposed to the Iranian power in place Khomeini has the title of Ayatollah not yet

Su00e9ance 6 - Sance 6 The baathist host Khomeini in Iraq...

This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 4 pages.

Séance 6The baathist host Khomeini in Iraq because Iraq is opposed to the Iranian power in place. Khomeinihas the title of Ayatollah, not yet marja al taqlid. Khomeini teaches in Najaf and comes up with hisidea of “Islamic Government” in 1971 in a public conference. He theorizes this notion which relies onthe “wilayar al-faqih”: the authority of the jurist. Khomeini is an Islamist and propose an Islamist stateand is more specific in what he wants: he says how the Islamic state should be run. Shia Islamism isquite a new phenomenon. Sunni Islamists appears before shia Islamism. Sunni islam is linked to theidea of government. Move from the idea of the caliphate to a more modern system, but the idea ofgovernment has always been there. In Shiism: the Mahdi is gone and there is a long development inwhich the ulama concentrate more and more power over time. Khomeini is the outcome of thatprocess. Still, not the idea that the ulama should govern. The idea of the Islamic state start with theSunnis. Some people argued for an Islamic state before Khomeini: Al-Da’wa > 1950s, so beforeKhomeini.Iraq is government by an Islamist movement since 2004 by Al-Dawa. A Da’wa meanspreaching. It copy the structure of the Muslim brotherhood > same idea of social network. Khomeinidid not invent shia Islamism. Those people speak about a shia Islamic state what breaks with thetradition of shiism. Al-Da’wa: political party with proponents in Iraq, but also in Bahrein and otherplaces. Shia Islamism is not one: shia Islamism is not entirely pro Khomeini. Al-Dawa is another group.Khomeini followers took power in Iran and so became more powerfull than the other movements.For Al-Da’wa: ulama should not run the state, the state should be run by layman. Khomeini theory:the Islamic state should be run by the cleric, the ulama > the ulama are the most capable. And thereshould be just one, not all the clerics > just one cleric because it is more efficient (Al-Faqih). Shiastudy philosophy (opposed to the sunni seminaries) > Greek philosophy is islamicized. Plato’s republic> re interpretated in Islamic terms. Al-Farabi: Islamic philosopher (probably a Sunni but studied inshiism) > he describes the virtuous city as the one ruled by the most intelligent and the elite.Khomeini influenced by Al-Farabi and Plato, somehow? Maybe. We are not sure but in the readings,the author make this point. Plato’s republic is not really democratic ... So why not? The idea of clericalrule > clergy the most capable > philosopher-king. Khomeini: teaches in Najaf and when he theorizesthe government of the ulama, most of the clergy is against it, they think it is dangerous. Even today,many of the clerics say it is dangerous. People call them a Sunni. Khomeini finally succeeded becausehe had state power. There was also an islamo-leftist ideology at the same time: Al Shariati (1933-1977): he studied in France (he was 20 when Mossadeqh was hosted in 1953): a mix between leftist

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture