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Unformatted text preview: HD 216 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Achievement ( Steinberg, pp. 403-436) What did McClelland mean by need for achievement and fear of failure? • Need for achievement o The extent to which an individual strives for success Intrinsically motivated • Desire to perform well that operates even in the absence of external rewards for success o Ex) student works hard on assignment that is not going to get graded (strong need for achievement) Strong need for achievement indiv • Usually come from family with parents who have high performance standards and encouraged autonomy and independence o Authoritative parenting with encouragement • Fear of failure o Psychological factor that interacts with adol’s need for achievement o Manifested in feelings of anxiety during tests or other evaluative situations Can interfere with successful performance o When: Tasks involving learning something new or solving complex problems o Who: Adols who’s parents set unrealistically high standards of achievement and react negatively to failure o People who fear failure UNDERACHIEVER • BOTH: pull individual toward or repel individual from achievement situations Give some examples of self-handicapping strategies and reasons that students would use them. • Self-handicapping strategies o Fooling around in class o Waiting until the last minute to study for an exam o Turning in incomplete homework • WHY: o As a way of self protection “I failed because I didn’t try, not because im stupid o As a means of enhancing their self-presentation “I’m too cool to care about doing well in school” 1 What are the differences between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation ? • Intrinsic motivation o Strive to achieve because of the pleasure they get out of learning and mastering the material • Adol who believe they are competent more likely to be intrinsically motivated and maintain efforts to do well • STABLE TRAIT • Extrinsic motivation o Strive to achieve because of the rewards they get for performing well and the punishments they receive for performing poorly • Adol who have doubts about their abilities more likely to be extrinsically motivated and be more susceptible to feelings of anxiety/ hesitation in face of challenge What is stereotype threat and how does it influence students’ performance? • Stereotype threat o The harmful effect that exposure to stereotypes about ethnic or sex differences in ability has on student performance • Influence on performance o Ethnic students’ performance drops when told members of ethnic group do not score as well • Reverse is also true o Depress females’ performance when they are told before taking that males outperform females o The extent to which adols believe stereotypes about ethnic or sex differences in ability their achievement may be enhanced or depressed, depending on how they think they are expected to perform Know the information about Dweck’s achievement motivation model and...
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This note was uploaded on 07/13/2008 for the course HD 2160 taught by Professor Schelhas-miller,c. during the Spring '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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