HD216 - final study guide - HD 216 final study guide...

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HD 216 – final study guide Achievement McClelland Need for achievement: extent to which indiv strives for success (intrinsic motivation to perform well) Fear of failure: fear of consequences of failing in academic achievement (anxiety during tests) Self-handicapping Fooling around in class, cramming, turning in incomplete hmwk used b/c children want to diminish importance of academics as response to poor performanc Intrinsic/extrinsic Intrinsic: motivated b/c get pleasure out of learning/mastering what they learn (believe in competence/give more effort) Extrinsic: motivated by awards received for doing well and punishments for doing poorly (doubt abilities) Stereotype threat Ethnic/sex differences in ability, threat of performing well/not well Dweck See notes… Cultural/social capital Cultural: resources provided w/in a family through exposure of adolesc to art, music, literature, etc. (positive impact on achievement above parents education) Social: support, encouragement, involvement of adults needed to facilitate adolesc’s success in school (strengthened w/ close ties to other families) Parents v. peers Parents long-range educational plans, peers day-to-day, more negative… Operate together b/c fam environment influences choice of friends…most influential in heterogeneous schools in US SES Parents go to college, kids go to college, affluence = better healthcare/nutrition better perf on intelligence tests, more parent involvement Ethnicity Afr. American/Hispanic students lag behind white students and all of these groups achieve less than Asian-Americans. Prejudice in job market, Asians only view education as success (effort vs. ability), recent immigration: children achieve more than second/third generation children b/c haven’t started to devalue education, have academic base from old country Stress Lower class homes = more stress b/c parental education and occupation affect adolescents’ achievement; stress correlates w/ school perf (stressful experiences led to more truancy, lower scores on standardized tests) Trends of tests Last 30 yrs, adolesc not scoring any better today on reading, 1% better on math, 3% worse on science, SAT scores declined 1970-1980, rose, then declined 1980-1990, slightly increased since Tests vs. other countries U.S. math/science mediocre compared to other industrialized countries (math 28 th in the world, behind tons of countries, science 17 th in the world behind Japan, Korea, Austria, England, etc) Drop out rate 1960: 30%, 1970: 20%, today: 25%. Varies by region, some urban areas >50% GED >50% Ethnic diff’s and drop out rates African American: only slightly more than for white, Hispanic: 2x rate of other youth (proficiency in English), SES high indicator of drop-out Occupational success Indicated by # of yrs of schooling Grades In high school and college are unrelated to occupational success
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Psychosocial Problems 4 general principles 1. occasional experimentation vs. enduring patterns of troublesome behavior
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HD216 - final study guide - HD 216 final study guide...

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