MasterGMAT - Petersons Master the GMAT 2015 About Petersons...

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Unformatted text preview: Peterson’s Master the GMAT 2015 About Peterson’s Publishing Peterson’s provides the accurate, dependable, high-quality education content and guidance you need to succeed. No matter where you are on your academic or professional path, you can rely on Peterson’s print and digital publications for the most up-to-date education exploration data, expert test-prep tools, and top-notch career success resources—everything you need to achieve your goals. Credits “The American Renaissance,” by James S. Turner, Humanities, Vol.13, No. 2 (March/April 1992). Published by The National Endowment for the Humanities. “Arnold’s Double-Sided Culture,” by John P. Farrell, Humanities, Vol. 12, No. 3 (May/June1991), pp. 26–30. Published by The National Endowment for the Humanities. “The Artful Encounter,” by Richard Wendorf, Humanities, Vol. 14, No. 4 (July/August 1993), pp. 9–12. Published by The National Endowment for the Humanities. “ ‘I Am Christina Rossetti,’ ” by Antony H. Harrison, Humanities, Vol. 14, No. 4 (July/August 1993), pp. 33–37. Published by The National Endowment for the Humanities. “Large Format Expands Little Buddha,” by Bob Fisher, American Cinematographer, Vol. 75, No. 5 (May 1994), p. 41. Reprinted by permission of American Cinematographer. Planetary Resources/Asteroid Mining. “All Things Considered.” National Public Radio, April 24, 2012. Efrati Amir. “A Quixotic Quest to Mine Asteroids.” Wall Street Journal 4121-22, 2012. Contributors: Carol Domblewski, Practical Strategies, LLC GMAT® is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission CouncilTM. The Graduate Admission CouncilTM does not endorse, and is not affiliated with, the content of Peterson’s Master theTM GMAT®. This book does not contain actual GMAT test items. For more information, contact Peterson’s, 3 Columbia Circle, Suite 205, cqx, Albany, NY 12203; 800-338-3282 Ext. 54229; or find us online at . © 2014 Peterson’s, a Nelnet company Previous editions © 1980, 1986, 1990, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1997, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution, or information storage and retrieval systems—without the prior written permission of the publisher. For permission to use material from this text or product, complete the Permission Request Form at . ISBN: 978-0-7689-3891-3 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 16 15 14 Twenty-first Edition By printing this book on recycled paper (10% post-consumer waste) 142 trees were saved. Petersonspublishing.com/publishingupdates Check out our website at to see if there is any new information regarding the test and any revisions or corrections to the content of this book. We’ve made sure the information in this book is accurate and up-to-date; however, the test format or content may have changed since the time of publication. blank page Contents Before You Begin.....................................................................................xi How This Book Is Organized................................................................................... xi Special Study Features............................................................................................. xii You Are Well on Your Way to Success.................................................................... xii Give Us Your Feedback............................................................................................ xii Top 10 Strategies to Raise Your Score.................................................................... xiii Access Three GMAT Tests Online......................................................................... xiv PART I: GMAT BASICS 1 All About the GMAT......................................................................... 3 The GMAT at a Glance...............................................................................................3 An Overview of the GMAT Sections.........................................................................6 How the Computer-Adaptive GMAT Works..............................................................8 The GMAT CAT Interface..........................................................................................9 The GMAT CAT Test-Taking Experience................................................................17 Your GMAT Scores..................................................................................................20 Score Reporting........................................................................................................22 How Business Schools Evaluate GMAT Scores.......................................................22 Top 10 Tips for GMAT Prep.....................................................................................23 Accommodations for Test-Takers with Disabilities..................................................25 Commonly Asked Questions About the GMAT.......................................................26 Summing It Up..........................................................................................................29 2 GMAT Questions: A First Look....................................................... 31 Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA)....................................................................31 The Integrated Reasoning Section............................................................................34 The Quantitative Section..........................................................................................47 The Verbal Section....................................................................................................54 Summing It Up..........................................................................................................63 PART II: DIAGNOSING STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES 3 Practice Test 1: Diagnostic............................................................ 73 Analytical Writing Assignment................................................................................73 Integrated Reasoning................................................................................................74 Quantitative Section..................................................................................................90 Verbal Section...........................................................................................................96 Answer Key and Explanations................................................................................108 v vi Contents Integrated Reasoning Section ................................................................................109 Quantitative Section................................................................................................ 114 Verbal Section.........................................................................................................121 PART III: GMAT ANALYTICAL WRITING ASSESSMENT 4 Argument Analysis....................................................................... 129 The 7-Step Plan.......................................................................................................129 Common Reasoning Flaws and How to Handle Them..........................................136 Adding Optional Elements to Your Essay .............................................................143 Keys to Writing a Successful GMAT Argument Analysis Essay..........................144 Summing It Up........................................................................................................148 5 Writing Style and Mechanics...................................................... 149 The Basics...............................................................................................................149 Advanced Techniques.............................................................................................153 Summing It Up........................................................................................................159 PART IV: GMAT INTEGRATED REASONING SECTION 6 Integrated Reasoning.................................................................. 163 The 3-Step Plan for Graphics Interpretation and Table Analysis Questions ..................................................................................164 The 3-Step Plan for Multi-Source Reasoning Questions.......................................177 The 4-Step Plan for Two-Part Analysis Questions.................................................182 Keys for Answering Integrated Reasoning Questions Successfully......................185 Summing It Up........................................................................................................187 PART V: GMAT QUANTITATIVE SECTION 7 Problem Solving........................................................................... 191 The 5-Step Plan for Problem Solving.....................................................................192 Some Advanced Techniques...................................................................................199 Use Common-Sense “Guesstimates” to Narrow the Field.................................... 200 When to Plug In Numbers for Variables.................................................................201 When—and When Not—to Work Backward from Numerical Answer Choices...............................................................................202 Find the Easiest Route to the Answer.....................................................................203 Search Geometry Figures for Clues....................................................................... 204 Sketch a Geometry Figure to Solve a Problem.......................................................205 Plug In Numbers for “Defined Operation” Questions............................................206 Keys to Successful GMAT Problem Solving.........................................................207 Summing It Up........................................................................................................212 Master the GMAT 2015 Contents 8 vii Data Sufficiency and Analysis.................................................... 213 The 5-Step Plan for Data Sufficiency Problems..................................................... 214 Data Sufficiency Strategies....................................................................................221 Keys to Successful GMAT Data Sufficiency.........................................................225 The 5-Step Plan for Data Analysis Problems.........................................................228 Keys to Successful GMAT Data Analysis..............................................................232 Summing It Up........................................................................................................234 9 Math Review: Number Forms, Relationships, and Sets............ 235 Percents, Fractions, and Decimals..........................................................................236 Simplifying and Combining Fractions...................................................................238 Decimal Place Values and Operations....................................................................241 Simple Percent Problems........................................................................................243 Percent Increase and Decrease.............................................................................. 244 Ratios and Proportion.............................................................................................246 Altering Fractions and Ratios.................................................................................248 Ratios with More Than Two Quantities..................................................................249 Proportion Problems with Variables.......................................................................250 Arithmetic Mean, Median, Mode, and Range........................................................250 Standard Deviation.................................................................................................253 Geometric Sequences..............................................................................................254 Arithmetic Sequences.............................................................................................256 Permutations...........................................................................................................257 Combinations..........................................................................................................258 Probability...............................................................................................................259 Summing It Up........................................................................................................263 10 Math Review: Number Theory and Algebra............................. 265 Basic Properties of Numbers..................................................................................266 Factors, Multiples, and Divisibility........................................................................268 Prime Numbers and Prime Factorization...............................................................270 Exponents (Powers).................................................................................................270 Exponents and the Real Number Line....................................................................273 Roots and Radicals..................................................................................................274 Roots and the Real Number Line............................................................................277 Linear Equations with One Variable......................................................................278 Linear Equations with Two Variables.....................................................................281 Linear Equations That Cannot Be Solved..............................................................285 Factorable Quadratic Expressions with One Variable............................................286 The Quadratic Formula...........................................................................................289 Nonlinear Equations with Two Variables...............................................................289 Solving Algebraic Inequalities................................................................................290 Weighted-Average Problems...................................................................................291 Currency Problems.................................................................................................292 Mixture Problems...................................................................................................293 Investment Problems...............................................................................................294 Problems of Rate of Production or Work................................................................295 Problems of Rate of Travel (Speed)........................................................................296 Problems Involving Overlapping Sets....................................................................298 Summing It Up....................................................................................................... 300 viii Contents 11 Math Review: Geometry............................................................. 301 Lines and Angles.....................................................................................................302 Triangles..................................................................................................................305 Isosceles and Equilateral Triangles........................................................................308 Rectangles, Squares, and Parallelograms............................................................... 310 Circles...................................................................................................................... 315 Advanced Circle Problems...................................................................................... 316 Polygons..................................................................................................................322 Cubes and Other Rectangular Solids......................................................................324 Cylinders.................................................................................................................326 Coordinate Signs and the Four Quadrants..............................................................327 Defining a Line on the Coordinate Plane...............................................................328 Graphing a Line on the Coordinate Plane..............................................................330 Midpoint and Distance Formulas............................................................................332 Coordinate Geometry.............................................................................................333 Summing It Up........................................................................................................337 PART VI: GMAT VERBAL SECTION 12 Critical Reasoning....................................................................... 341 The 6-Step Plan.......................................................................................................341 Assumption Questions........................................................................................... 344 Additional Evidence Questions...............................................................................348 Inference Questions................................................................................................354 Strategy Questions..................................................................................................357 Hypothesis Questions.............................................................................................360 Necessary Inference Questions..............................................................................364 Parallel Argument Questions..................................................................................370 Summing It Up........................................................................................................373 13 Sentence Correction................................................................... 375 The 4-Step Plan.......................................................................................................375 Grammatical Errors Involving Parts of Speech......................................................377 Problems with a Sentence’s Structural Elements...................................................383 Redundancy, Wordiness, Awkwardness, and Omissions.......................................386 Errors in Parts of Speech........................................................................................391 Problems in Tense, Voice, and Mood......................................................................394 Sentence Structure and Sense.................................................................................398 Summing It Up........................................................................................................405 14 Reading Comprehension............................................................ 407 “Interactive” Reading: The Key to Reading Comprehension................................407 The 7-Step Plan...................................................................................................... 408 Techniques for Interactive Reading........................................................................412 Sample Reading Passages and Question Types...................................................... 416 To...
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