Middleton Book Review - Middleton Book Review Chapter 1 Culture shock Humans have selective perception which is the tendency of people to see and

Middleton Book Review - Middleton Book Review Chapter 1...

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Middleton Book Review Chapter 1: Culture shock Humans have selective perception which is the tendency of people to see and recognize only those things they expect to see or those that confirm their world views. As far as communication , children pick up local languages much faster than adults. Understanding hand gestures is also an important aspect of understanding other cultures. In some cultures, not sharing food doesn’t only make feel hungrier, but also feel isolated and reminds you that you’re an outsider. Humans also assume that some acts are so basic and simple that they always carry the same meanings across different cultures; this is known as naïve realism . Cultural expectations are about giving and receiving because circumstances of exchange are about social relationships. It is important for an outsider to hold an idea of the rules presented to them in different places and cultures. As far as gender roles ; in urban settings outsiders are allowed to fit in. limits of familiar roles can be expanded and new roles can be easily introduced. Chapter 2: Common Ground Human groups are fundamentally the same but also very different. Unlike other species humans are characterized by the ability to learn. Humans achieved upright posture, the size and complexity of the brain increased and we acquired language. Australopithecines; pre-humans found only in Africa achieved upright posture 3 to 4 million years ago, the dramatic expansion of our brain increased our ability to learn. Our closest primates, chimpanzees use call systems ; closed systems that are largely restricted to signals of danger and to involuntary expressions of internal emotion. Language is an open system that can be expanded as experience and learning require. Humans can be exposed and can adapt to different language conditions. The great feature of language allows us to speak about conditions and objects that are not immediately observable to us. This means we can well on our memories and plan for the future. This is called displacement . We learn what we need to learn in order to survive in a specific environment. However, we have no learned to get along well with each other as humans. People use and culturally and socially constructed labels to identify groups as races. Cultural and religious behavior have been more important than differences in appearance. There is little demonstrated scientific reasoning for designing a racial classification, even for biological and medical reasons. There are cases for climatic engineering that gives us clues for the manufacture of difference but we quickly run out of reasons for other classifications. Another argument against racial classification is that it assumes the existence of pure races. Example. Interracial marriages produce children of equal ability or even superior to that parent. Racial mixture has always been historically common. Another example of a problem with racial classification is that there are Australians with dark skin and blonde hair. Because of these reasons, race is a scientifically a discredited
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