Final Review **Look over your notes from class and study the PowerPoints Studying the Past Archaeology – the scientific study of the material remains of the past; human cultures and behavior Matrix- It reflects the kind of condition that the artifact is in. So if you’re digging in clay. Association- Apart of the context. Example if you find a bowl on top of a skull then it’s more important than a bowl with a tool. Represents like a ritual had happened for the burial. Provenience- Exact location where the artifact was found like a 3 dimensional plane. Stratigraphy – whatever is the oldest is on the bottom newest is on the top so like layers of soil etc. Ecofacts – organic remains which are used or affected by people like plant remains, animal bones and pollen grains Artifacts – The portable products and by-products of human behavior. Features – any artifact that you can’t take with you. So walls a pit etc. If the item is removed then it becomes an artifact not a feature. Sites – a cluster of artifcats, ecofacts, and features (hot spot in away) Regions – A large cluster of temporally related archeological data Absolute dating techniques – determining age on a specific time scale. Placing things in order from oldest to present. (use radioactive decay to figure this out) Pompeii premise – Pompeii is the exception not the norm you never really find a perfect preserved species. Collapse – the ending of a civilization (IDK the context collapse for anthro) Biology and evolution Evolution – loosely defined, evolution means change through time, we are specifically concerned with origins. Progressive evolution (Herbert Spencer) – the important things to know is according to this theory evolution goes from simple to progress the goal of evolution is to progress forward. Everything that happened till now is trying to make us. Adaptation is the expected consequence of evolution Lamarckian evolution (Jean-Baptiste Lamarck ) – The giraffe keeps stretching his neck his entire life so the kid will have a longer neck cuz they adults have been doing that, the adaptation is a one-step process because of its needs in the ecosystem. This is not true you can’t pass on trait needs. Natural selection (Charles Darwin) – Organisms evolve as a result of natural selection of variants which originated independently. Bottleneck effect – when there is a random effect like a volcanic eruption that whips out a majority of the species. Like if there is 10k people before and then maybe like 100 survive so the genetic pool is lowered.