Music in Society Review Sheet- 1

Music in Society Review Sheet- 1 - Music in Society Review...

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Music in Society Review Sheet Acoustics- the science of sound and the physical basis of music. Elements of music: All sounds have pitch, duration, loudness, and tone quality- combining these elements can result in the musical characteristics of melody, harmony, and rhythm. Music can be characterized by its texture and form. Pitch- a single perceived note. Register- an area of the sound spectrum- high, middle, or low; e.g.: we can’t perceive the pitch of a triangle; we can perceive its register. Although we identify the frequency of vibrations as fast or slow, we identify pitches as well as pitch areas (registers) as high or low: the faster the frequency, the higher the pitch; the slower the frequency, the lower the pitch. White sound/ white noise- the entire range of frequencies sounding at once; e.g.: static on a radio, waterfall, etc. Duple meter- 2 beats; STRONG, weak, STRONG, weak. Triple meter- STRONG, weak, weak, STRONG, weak, weak. Nonmetric music- music without a pulse, with a weak pulse, or an irregular pulse. Mixed meter- music that has a clear pulse, but the strong beats occur in different patterns; e.g.: STRONG, weak, STRONG, weak, weak, STRONG, weak. Downbeat- the 1 st beat of each bar. Dynamics- the loudness or softness of music. Accent- achieved by increasing the intensity (increased stress or emphasis) on a single note or chord, “>” above a number represents an accented tone. Tempo- rate of speed. Timbre- distinctive tone qualities of all sound-producing devices; e.g.: a flute sounds different sounds different than a clarinet, a man sounds different than a woman. Idiophone- instruments whose basic material of construction is the sound-producing agent (e.g.: rattles, metal or wooden bells and gongs, shells, log drums, clay pot drums, xylophones, and mbiras). Membranophone- drums with head of stretched skin; different shapes/ sizes- skin can be on both ends, if there’s only skin on 1 end, the opposite end can either be open or closed, etc.; played with sticks, hands, or a combination of the 2; common technique involves manipulation and alteration of fingers, thumbs, and heel of the hands. Chordophone- stringed instruments; various shapes and sizes; most African stringed instruments are plucked rather than bowed; includes lutes, zithers, harps, and fiddles. Aerophone- wind instruments; made of wood, ivory, or animal horn; usually no finger holes or valves; includes natural horns, trumpets, vertical and horizontal flutes, and reed
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instruments. African Music Beat (or pulse)- the steady beat (the “heartbeat” in Western music); organized into 2 or 3 beats, creating a meter. Syncopation- placing accents on weak or weak parts of beats; e.g.: 1
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Music in Society Review Sheet- 1 - Music in Society Review...

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