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Research Methods Exam- Chapter 7

Research Methods Exam- Chapter 7 - Repeated Measures...

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Repeated Measures Designs (aka within-subjects design because you are trying to find out if there are any differences in the way the participants within a single sample behave). It is the opposite of between-groups design , where you test different participants in different groups. The goal here is to see if there are any differences between groups. When interested in subject variables, you MUST choose between-groups design. Repeated measures design : observe participants more than once. Advantages : 1. you are certain that participants are comparable across groups (because they are the same people being measured in different conditions) 2. you can get a lot of info from a smaller number of participants 3. you are more likely to detect small differences between groups 4. increase the amount of data without a marked increase in time and effort. Essentially, it saves time. By using a repeated measures design, you could still test 50 but get the benefits of using 150. Clearly, you are also decreasing the number of people you have to recruit. 5. it increases your validity. Consider that with the repeated measures design, the same person is being measured in each condition, so change in behavior are more likely due to the IV than to other stuff. 6. if the group you want to test is rare, such as highly trained experts, you might have trouble finding these people so using this design you won’t have to find many. 7. reduced error: smart or fast people in condition A will also be smart or fast in condition B. You can compare these people in different conditions, knowing that if they have certain characteristics that should be the same in any conditions in which you might test them. Disadvantages : 1. you have to worry that one treatment will have effects that persist, affecting later behaviors 2. should not be used if your testing sessions require a lot of time and effort because your participants may be fatigued or bored so testing them in a second condition might end up being a problem. 3. if the person does not return you will have invested all this time in them for nothing! Are the following disadvantages or what? What is diff. between sequence effects and transfer? I don’t get the two types of transfer… 4. sequence effects (the result of multiple or repeated measurements of individuals in different conditions such that they behave differently on later measurements as a result of having undergone the earlier measurements). 5. order effects (result of multiple or repeated measurements of individuals in different conditions such that a particular behavior changes depending on which condition it follows. Fatigue that sets in after repeated testing is an example). 6. transfer: change in behavior that results from learning that takes place in the earlier condition.
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