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Research Methods Exam- Chapter 9

Research Methods Exam- Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 Correlational...

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Chapter 9: Correlational Research see how things relate). There’s 2 types of correlational approaches: 1. Pearson product-moment correlation- the  standard & simplest approach; involves bivariate relationships between 2 variables.  2.  Multivariate tests- when we want to see how variables interconnect; more complex;  involves @ least 3 variables; allows us to see a more complex picture of behavior. We also use correlational studies we’re interested in complex behaviors that emerge as  a result of multiple causal agents or if we’re interested in variables that would be  impractical or unethical to manipulate directly. 2 important points when considering relationship studies: 1. Your variables have to have  construct validity (they have to relate meaningfully to what you’re measuring) 2. If you  compute correlation coefficients on a lot of different variables, you’ll get some significant  relationships that are meaningless- 5% of the time variables that with no relationship will  appear significant, so you should remember that some of them will be significant when  they don’t mean anything. Prediction study- a project designed to predict some outcome variable in correlational  research- e.g.:1 st Criterion variable- in a prediction study, the outcome that interests us, which we want to  predict- e.g.: 1 st -year GPA. Predictor variable- in a prediction study, the variable that we use to make a prediction-  e.g.: SAT.  SAT scores are moderately correlated to 1 st -year GPA- ~16% of the difference from 1  person to the next is predictable on the basis of GPA; the remaining 84% of the  difference across students is due to unknown factors.  Thus, SAT scores may be 1  Correlational study- relies on making measurements without controlling or trying to  manipulate variables; the purpose is to identify connections among variables.  The 
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relationship is associative, not necessarily causal- keep in mind that there may really be  a causal connection, the problem is that correlational studies don’t give you enough  information to let you know.
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Research Methods Exam- Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 Correlational...

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