Research Methods- Exam #2 Outline

# Research Methods- Exam #2 Outline - Chapter 4 Applied...

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Chapter 4 Applied research- research that tries to address practical questions, rather than theoretical questions; takes place in a natural environment where people are acting like they normally do Archival research Basic aka Theoretical Research- research that tests or expands on the theory with no direct application attended; more likely to occur in a lab or other controlled setting Case Study Chain Referral Sampling Cluster Sampling Convenience Sampling Convergent Validity Correlational Research Criterion Variable Dependent Variable Experimental Approach Generalization Independent Variable Inter-rater/Inter-observer Reliability Hypothetical Construct- something that you hypothesize that is psychologically real (e.g.: stress); it’s amorphous- we don’t know that it’s real; not just behaviors- can be attitudes, thoughts Longitudinal Research Measurement Error Non-sampling error Observational Approach

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Operational Definition- an explanation of an abstract concept (e.g.: a test score) Population- the group that we’re interested in understanding; varies in different research projects (college students, animals, etc.); we rarely have access to the entire population Predictive Validity Predictor Variable Probability Sampling Purposive/ Judgmental Sampling Qualitative research Quasi- experiment Quota sampling Reliability Representative Sample- when the sample is similar to the population Sample- a subset of the population Simple Random Sampling Split-half Reliability Stratified Random Sampling Systematic Random Sampling Test-Retest Reliability Variable- something that interests us; can have different values (e.g.: amount of learning); can be defined as having different levels (e.g.: high/moderate/low stress); is contrasted with a constant (something that stays the same) Literature search- you have something that’s not directly observable (construct) so you do a literature search. You don’t know it, so you look at other sources. Important effects: 1.) avoid merely repeating what the other researchers have done 2.) You see all the different approaches people have used in the past and now can identify which approach is good in answering your question 3.) can see approaches and how others define their variables- see what works, so when you do your construct, you can see what will and won’t work for you
-There’s nothing wrong with adopting methods that others have used Use social readjustment scale for measuring stress Conducting your study: To measure the effects of stress, there are 4 ways: 1.) descriptive approach- observe behaviors without interacting with the people you monitor 2.) Administer a questionnaire (guards against ethics- you’re not manipulating the variables, therefore you’re not causing any stress or harm) 3.) manipulation Determining the research setting- you put them in an experimental setting when there are a lot of

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## Research Methods- Exam #2 Outline - Chapter 4 Applied...

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