Final for Social Psych

Final for Social Psych - Chapter 10 1.Describe the...

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Chapter 10 1. Describe the evolutionary factors that may contribute to helping. Define kinship selection. Define reciprocal altruism and state what is thought to be evolutionarily adaptive about it. Evolutionary factors mean that helping is genetically adaptive- if a specific social behavior enhances reproductive success, the genetic underpinnings of that behavior are more likely to be passed on to following generations. These factors are: Kinship selection -if your genes survive, you can survive through them, so you are more likely to help close than distant relatives. You can preserve your genes by promoting the survival of those who share your genetic make-up, even if you endanger yourself in the effort of helping them (e.g.: cooperative breeding- some species delay breeding in order to stay close to home and help their parents raise little siblings). This type of selection is strongest when biological stakes are very high (e.g.: participants in a study indicated that they were more likely to help someone who was closely related vs. a more distant relative- especially in a life-threatening situation; these intentions to help kin in life-threatening situations were influenced by reproductive-related factors- participants said that they were more likely to help youthful relatives vs. older ones and healthy relatives vs. those in poorer health). Reciprocal altruism -helping others increases the chance that they’ll help you in return (e.g.: chimps grooming other chimps). Here, you feel like you’ve made a difference. It basically means what I am doing is meaningful. Teachers use this. Reciprocal altruism is thought to be evolutionarily adaptive because individuals who engage in reciprocal altruism should survive and reproduce more than those who don’t (e.g.: if Sandy helps Chris, both Chris and Sandy increase their chances of survival and reproductive success). Swapping of music on Kazaa is reciprocal altruism because an individual makes his or her files available to others so that he or she can have access to theirs. The development of norms and the punishment of individuals who deviate from the norm are key factors in maintaining reciprocal altruism (e.g.: if you don’t share your music files with others, you’ll have a very hard chance getting others to share their music with you). Cooperative groups -you prefer to help ingroup members because this increases the chance that your group will survive- unlike kinship selection, this is also applicable to groups in which members aren’t necessarily related (e.g.: other monkeys helping a monkey that’s born without hands and feet). Helping behavior is produced based on a social connection instead of a genetic relationship- therefore; cooperation and helpfulness among members of a social group (especially when the group faces an external threat) could be an innate, universal tendency. Evidence suggests that people are more likely to cooperate with and help those who they consider to be in their
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This note was uploaded on 07/13/2008 for the course PSYC 31600 taught by Professor Vaughn during the Spring '08 term at Ithaca College.

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Final for Social Psych - Chapter 10 1.Describe the...

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