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Cognition FINAL!!!

Cognition FINAL!!! - Thorndike the process of problem...

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Thorndike: the process of problem solution occurred through trial & error (a.k.a. responses to the problem are random responses until 1 of them proves successful); e.g.: a cat was placed in a box with a trap door & performed all kinds of behaviors until the appropriate response was made accidentally (the trap door opened & food was available as a reward). Chimp named Sultan: was able to use a stick to obtain some bananas outside of his cage; when provided with 2 poles that weren’t long enough to reach the bananas he put 1 pole inside the other to create a longer pole; Kohler called this insight. Insight- a.k.a. productive thinking; according to the Gestaltists the process of some problem solving requires the reorganizing or restructuring of the elements of the problem situation in such a way as to provide a solution. Reproductive thinking- relies on the rote application of past solutions to a problem. Two-string problem- involved human subjects who were introduced to a room that had 2 strings hanging from the ceiling; other objects in the room included pliers & poles; the subjects were told to tie the 2 strings together (wasn’t easy because it wasn’t possible to reach 1 string while holding the end of the other string); 1 solution- attach the pliers to the end of 1 string so that it swings like a pendulum, Maier waited until the subjects were stuck & brushed against the string to make it swing, without noticing his movement many arrived @ the solution- Maier’s subtle hint resulted in a reorganization or restructuring of the problem. Functional fixedness- the inability to use an object appropriately in a given situation because of prior experience of using the object in a different way; e.g.: some of Maier’s subjects couldn’t solve the problem even if he gave them a pair of pliers & told them to use the pliers- they were unable to shift from seeing pliers as a tool for gripping things to seeing it as a weighty object; functional fixedness Dunker- another example of functional fixedness; subjects were handed a candle, a box of nails, & other objects & were told to fix the candle to the wall by a table so that the candle doesn’t drip on the table- not many people thought of using the box which contained the nails as a candle holder (they were fixated on the usual function of the box, to hold the nails). Nine-dot problem- subjects are presented with 9 dots arranged in a 3x3 matrix; had to join all the dots in 4 straight lines without lifting the pencil from the paper;
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most subjects couldn’t do this because they kept their lines within the matrix; solution= draw lines beyond the matrix. Set- the rote application of learned rules; another potential block to problem-
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Cognition FINAL!!! - Thorndike the process of problem...

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