cogntion test 4 - Chapter 8 Phonemes-The sound of the first...

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Chapter 8 Phonemes -The sound of the first letter in pin and the sound in the second letter in spin actually differ from one another in that there is a small puff of air. The difference between p in pin and b in spin is a difference in voicing and does not affect meaning so that we know that pin is not the same word as bin. In English, the p and b sounds are two phonemes, whereas the two variants of p are not. Morphemes -The word speaks can be divided into the component “speak,” which it shares with “speaking” and “speaker,” and the component “s,” the third-person singular ending. Linguistics call these units morphemes, the smallest linguistic units that carry meaning. Bound morphemes and free morphemes -bound morphemes, like s, ing, est, and un cannot occur on their own. When they occur at the beginning of a word (prefix) or at the end (suffix) they are also known as inflectional endings. Free morphemes, like speak, ease, and cat, however, can occur on their own. Phonology -the sound system of any particular language Syntax, grammar -syntax is the combination of words into phrases and sentences. Grammar is the set of rules that language users have that allow them to tackle any sentence that comes along. The fact that people routinely produce and understand utterances that are completely new to them, ones they have never said before or had said to them, is a basic idea in the rules of grammar. Semantics -meaning of words, phrases and sentences. Discourse -activities using language which extend beyond individual sentences, such as stories, speeches, newspaper articles and conversations. Lexical items, mental lexicon -lexical items are words that designate things and people, abstract concepts, actions, events, and properties of objects. Mental lexicons refer to a mental store of words. Consider when a word like dinosaur has been learned. Here, the person will have knowledge of how the word is pronounced, how it can function in a sentence and its meaning. This leads to the mental lexicon. Inflectional endings
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This note was uploaded on 07/13/2008 for the course PSYC 33000 taught by Professor Radar during the Spring '08 term at Ithaca College.

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cogntion test 4 - Chapter 8 Phonemes-The sound of the first...

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