-The sound of the first letter in pin and the sound in the second letter in spin actually differ from
one another in that there is a small puff of air. The difference between p in pin and b in spin is a difference
in voicing and does not affect meaning so that we know that pin is not the same word as bin. In English, the
p and b sounds are two phonemes, whereas the two variants of p are not.
-The word speaks can be divided into the component “speak,” which it shares with “speaking”
and “speaker,” and the component “s,” the third-person singular ending. Linguistics call these units
morphemes, the smallest linguistic units that carry meaning.
Bound morphemes and free morphemes
-bound morphemes, like s, ing, est, and un cannot occur on their
own. When they occur at the beginning of a word (prefix) or at the end (suffix) they are also known as
inflectional endings. Free morphemes, like speak, ease, and cat, however, can occur on their own.
-the sound system of any particular language
-syntax is the combination of words into phrases and sentences. Grammar is the set of
rules that language users have that allow them to tackle any sentence that comes along. The fact that people
routinely produce and understand utterances that are completely new to them, ones they have never said
before or had said to them, is a basic idea in the rules of grammar.
-meaning of words, phrases and sentences.
-activities using language which extend beyond individual sentences, such as stories, speeches,
newspaper articles and conversations.
Lexical items, mental lexicon
-lexical items are words that designate things and people, abstract concepts,
actions, events, and properties of objects. Mental lexicons refer to a mental store of words. Consider when a
word like dinosaur has been learned. Here, the person will have knowledge of how the word is pronounced,
how it can function in a sentence and its meaning. This leads to the mental lexicon.