Cognition- Exam Deux (Memory)

Cognition- Exam Deux (Memory) - Chapter 1 What Is Memory A...

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Chapter 1: What Is Memory? A Life Without Memory Ÿ HM- had severe epilepsy that couldn’t be controlled with drugs, so he had a neurosurgery. As a result of the surgery, HM lost his ability to form new long-term memories (aka anterograde amnesia)- his memory is only momentary and he can’t remember his own experiences for more than a few minutes. -HM’s immediate “working memory” is intact- if you ask him to remember a phone # that you just read to him, he can repeat it, but won’t be able to recall it later. - His long-term memories of experiences and things learned before his surgery are intact. - Although he can’t store his own experiences in long-term memory, he can learn and store motor skills normally- you can teach him various skills over a series of lessons and he’d improve, but at the beginning of each lesson, you’d have to re- introduce yourself and explain to him why he is there because he wouldn’t remember. Ÿ STM and LTM are different because they involve different brain systems. A Mnemonist Ÿ Mnemonist- a memory expert. Ÿ Rajan Mahadevan wanted to have a memory record in the Guinness Book of World Records, so he contacted them and they told him to focus on π (3.14.……- difficult because the # is almost endless and the digits don’t have any patterns or predictability). - Was able to recite π from memory. - Took him 3 hours and 49 minutes, and he was able to recite 31,811 digits without making a single error- placing him in the Guinness Book of World Records. Life With Too Much Memory Ÿ Most famous case of a person with a photographic memory- Russian psychologist Alexander Luria’s patient “S.” - The Dr. gave S a series of words, #’s, and letters and either read them slowly to him or had him read them- S was able to repeat all material with ease (he just required a 3-4 second pause between each element in the series) and without error, regardless of how many elements he was presented with. - During the experiment, he would either close his eyes or would fix his eyes on one point. After the experiment, he was able to go over all the material in his mind and correctly reproduce it. - Luria arranged other sessions with S that were days, sometimes weeks, months, and years apart. Conclusion: there was no limit to either the capacity of S’s memory or to the durability of the traces he retained- he had no difficulty reproducing any lengthy series of words, even if they had been presented to him a week, month, or year(s) earlier. False Memories
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Ÿ John Dean’s testimony to a congressional committee about his conversations with President Nixon concerning the Watergate cover-up. - 1 st meeting with the president was in September 1972- Dean described this meeting to congress in great detail. -2 years later, the president released transcripts of the tape recordings he had made during these meetings- hardly a word of Dean’s account was true, Nixon didn’t say any of the things that dean had claimed.
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