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Social Psych- Ch. 6 Study Guide

Social Psych- Ch. 6 Study Guide - 1 Define attitudes...

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-11. Define attitudes. Describe the tripartite model of attitudes discussed in class. Differentiate between how EMGs, EEGs, and IAT are used to measure attitudes. Which measures of attitudes predict specific behaviors the best: measures of general attitudes or measures corresponding to the specific behaviors? What three psychological factors tend to consistently distinguish between our strongest and weakest attitudes? (See p. 192). An attitude is a positive, negative, or mixed reaction that a person has about an object, person, or idea. People can have both positive and negative reactions to the same attitude of an object without feeling any conflict (e.g.: open to homosexuals but also unconsciously has prejudices against them). Attitudes enable us to judge others to quickly, without a lot of thought. Pre- existing attitudes about people, objects, and ideas can cause us to be very close-minded, be biased towards the way we interpret new information, and make us more resistant to change (e.g.: Our views on Muslims after the World Trade Center attacks). The tripartite model has 3 parts- this is also called the ABC’s of attitudes: 1. Affect: one’s feelings about a target (e.g.: I love bubble tea). 2. Behavioral intentions (e.g.: I’ll only get it once a week). 3. Cognition: one’s thoughts and beliefs about the target (e.g.: bubble tea is amazing, but I don’t want to get fat). EMGs, or facial electromyographs, measures the contraction of certain facial muscles that can not be seen by the naked eye. EMGs measure our affect associated with certain attitudes (e.g.: agreeable messages produce increased activity in the cheek muscles- characteristics of happiness; disagreeable messages produced increased activity in the forehead and brow area- characteristics of sadness and distress). EEGs, or electroencephalographs, examines brain activity by measuring brain waves. Studies have shown that attitudes can be measured via electrical activity in the brain (e.g.: brain wave patterns increased more when presented with a stimulus that they disliked directly after a stream of positive stimuli and vice-versa). IAT, or the implicit association test, measures the speed in which we associate a pair of concepts. Derived from reaction time. Measures corresponding to the specific behavior is the best predictor of specific behaviors. The three psychological factors that tend to consistently distinguish between our strongest and weakest attitudes are those that are concerned with issues that: 1. Directly affected their own outcomes and self-interests (e.g.: IC tuition costs lowered). 2. Related to deeply held philosophical, political, and religious values (e.g.: anti-Semitism in the US). 3. Concerned close friends, family, and social groups (rise in employees getting laid off in the tri- state area).
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