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BIOLOGY 325: Inquiries in Biological ScienceChapter 7 Notes
Boundless.com/biologyCellularRespirationEnergy in Living SystemsGlycolysisOxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid CycleOxidative PhosphorylationFree to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Metabolism without Oxygen
Boundless.com/biologyCellularRespiration(continued)Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid MetabolicPathwaysRegulation of Cellular RespirationFree to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at
•Introduction•Electrons and Energy•ATP in Living SystemsEnergy in Living SystemsCellular Respiration > Energy in Living SystemsFree to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at
•Organisms ingest organic molecules like the carbohydrate glucose to obtain theenergy needed for cellular functions.•The energy in glucose can be extracted in a series of chemical reactions knownas cellular respiration.•Cellular respiration produces energy in the form of ATP, which is the universalenergy currency for cells.IntroductionFree to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Energy PlantView on Boundless.comCellular Respiration > Energy in Living Systems
•When electrons are added to a compound, the compound is reduced; acompound that reduces another is called a reducing agent.•When electrons are removed from a compound, the compound is consideredoxidized; a compound that oxidizes another is called an oxidizing agent.•The transfer of energy in the form of electrons allows the cell to transfer and useenergy in an incremental fashion.•The principle electron carriers are NAD+ and NADH because they can be easilyoxidized and reduced, respectively.•NAD+ is the oxidized form of the niacin and NADH is the reduced form after ithas accepted two electrons and a proton.Electrons and EnergyFree to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at 579The structure of NADH and NAD+View on Boundless.comCellular Respiration > Energy in Living Systems
•Cells require a constant supply of energy to survive, but cannot store this energyas free energy as this would result in elevated temperatures and would destroythe cell.•Cells store energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP.•Energy is released when the terminal phosphate group is removed from ATP.•To utilize the energy stored as ATP, cells either couple ATP hydrolysis to anenergetically unfavorable reaction to allow it to proceed or transfer one of thephosphate groups from ATP to a protein substrate, causing it to changeconformations and hence energetic preference.