Comm 201 Midterm 2 Review - Comm 201 Midterm#2 Review Sheet...

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Comm 201 Midterm #2 Review Sheet Longinus - Credited with writing “On the Sublime” - The argument centers on the concepts of sublimity & transcendence. o Sublimity consists of an expression that, through elevated language, transports or entrances, that creates a sense of transcendence. o Lower forms of expression only persuade or gratify us. o Sublimity comes from nature, but its expression and appreciation are impacted through study. - Impact of the true sublime: o The true sublime uplifts the soul, makes us feel as if we have taken part in creating the story, occurs again and again w/ out fading, and the effect of sublimity is universal and timeless - 2 Sources of Sublimity & 3 Sources of technique to produce sublimity: o One must have the ability to form grand conceptions and therefore must have a great and noble mind. o The artist must have the ability to gather elements of narrative in a way that they effectively create a single organism . o One must have the ability to stimulate powerful and inspired emotion- this emotion breathes divine inspiration into words. Done using stylistic figures (examples, metaphors), using noble diction and phrasing, and dignified / elevated composition of the work as a whole.
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Augustine - Most important work, “On Christian Doctrine” - Augustine took a Platonic view of the Christian faith, infusing Plato’s ideas into early Christian doctrine - On Chrisitan Doctrine: o Was a defense of the study of rhetoric. Stated that rhetorical skills are not pagan, but “indifferent” tools to be used by both kinds of people. Through using rhetorical skill, a preacher may defeat those opposed to him, teach the ignorant, and sustain the faithful. o Teaching takes precedence over rhetorical power Clarity of teaching is more important than eloquence. Minister must be wise above all else o The Christian minister needs two things to complete his work: Modus inveniendi- The method for finding material / Truths within the Scripture. Modus preferendi- The method for expressing the ideas / truths. o Augustine’s take on the 3 styles of oratory: Low- Preacher must master so that even if he can’t speak well, his message will be understood. Middle- Careful about using this one. Should only be used where appropriate to message and when able to be employed effectively.
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Grand- Especially useful when proclaiming truth from a text. - The preacher’s actions are more important than his eloquence. The effective Christian preacher emphasizes ethos over pathos or logos. - Orators best to worst: o Wise person who speaks well, Wise person who speaks poorly, Fool who speaks poorly, Fool who speaks well. - Before Augustine there were 3 types of rhetoric / preaching being used: o Poetic form- Using this form made it easy for people to memorize the message contained in the sermon.
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