Exam 2 Notes

Exam 2 Notes - February 26, 2008 Motown and Soul The two...

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February 26, 2008 Motown and Soul The two genres that continue the development of RnB through the 1960s and into the 70s Motown Records o Located in Detroit, taking name from Detroit’s nicknames “Motor City”, “Motor Town” for the car manufacturing capital of the US o Owned by Barry Gordy, III o Adopts a production-line approach to recording acts o Objective: create crossover hits that succeed on Pop chart, resulting in 110 top-ten hits from 1961-71 o Achieves phenomenal success, making Motown must successful of black-owned record companies and one of most successful black-owned corporations in US history o Pathway to Success Roster of acts all first-rate Girl Groups o Supremes o Marvelettes o Gladys Knight and the Pips o Martha Reeves and the Vandellas Doo Wop o Temptations o Four Tops o Smokey Robinson and the Miracles o Isley Brothers o Junior Walker and the Allstars o Jackson Five Solo Acts o Mary Wells o Stevie Wonder
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o Marvin Gaye o Smokey Robinson o Motown’s musical point of departure is Doo Wop Marvelettes, discovered in high-school talent show in Inkster, Mi. help give Motown national prominence with “Please, Mr. Postman” (1961) o More success comes with sophistication Supremes Motown follows Leiber and Stoller’s model for greater musical sophistication, e.g. as with Supremes, making Motown’s music the epitome of the most suave and sophisticated RnB Motown has three in-house song-writing entities Smokey Robinson o “My Girl”, “Shop Around” o B. Dylan calls Robinson “American’s Greatest Living Poet” Norman Whitfield o Brought funkier edge to Motown songs with compositions “Heard It Through the Grapevine”, “War” (Edwin Starr) Most important of song writers at Motown is songwriting team Holland- Dozier-Holland o Join forces 1962 o Regarded as most successful songwriters of the 60s = Motown Success o Many No. 1 RnB Pop Hits “Baby Love”, “Where Did Our Love Go”, “Stop! In the Name of Love”, You Keep Me Hangin’ On” o Departure from Motown 1968 over royalty dispute jeopardizes Motown’s success Motown relies on special group of session (jazz) musicians who record the instrumental backing for all Motown songs Numbering about one dozen strong, they create a signature sound that becomes synonymous with Motown Records
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Within the Motown organization they become known as The Funk Brothers o Among these instrumentalists, the following four are regarded as invaluable: Robert White, guitar Earl Van Dyke, keyboard James Jamerson, bass guitar and upright bass Benny Benjamin, drums o Their musicianship was so important to Motown that their contracts with Motown stipulated that they could play for no other recording company , and could not leave Detroit without Gordy’s expressed permission o They set standards for pop instrumental musicianship that inspired musicians worldwide Maxine Powell, Owner of Maxine Powell Finishing and Modeling School
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Exam 2 Notes - February 26, 2008 Motown and Soul The two...

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