Gov101 Final Review

Gov101 Final Review - GOV 101 FINAL EXAM STUDY SHEET 1....

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GOV 101 FINAL EXAM STUDY SHEET 1. Civil Rights: Obligation imposed on government to take positive action to protect citizen from any illegal action of governmental agencies as well as of other private citizens. 2. CIVIL WAR AMENDMENTS (XIII, XIV, and XV) XIII: Abolition of Slavery XIV: Those born in the United States are citizens of the U.S. - Dred Scott (slave): overruled ruling that stated black individuals are not U.S. citizens. - Extends equal protection to all citizens under the law XV: government shall not prohibit a citizen from voting (African-Americans) - Women’s Rights group oppose 3. Why Did the Reconstruction Era Stop? - Compromise of 1877: Democrats allowed republican Rutherford Hayes to become President after a disputed election. In exchange, Northern Republicans dropped their support for the civil liberties and political participation of African Americans. 4. What measures were taken in the South to strip African Americans of political power? - Poll taxes - Literacy Tests (inhibited African-Americans from voting/ arbitrary) - Grandfather Clause: if your grandfather was an American citizen, then you could vote. Made so that they do not lose the votes of the illiterate, poor whites while inhibiting African-Americans from voting. 5. Jim Crow Laws - Laws enacted by southern states following Reconstruction that discriminated against African- Americans. - Segregation system (whites and blacks) - Different facilities for each race (movie theaters, restrooms, water fountains) - Plessy V. Ferguson (1896): established “separate but equal” (protects the Jim Crow Laws). Breach of the Fourteenth Amendment. - Ferguson was 1/8 African-American and thought he should be able to sit in the white car on the train. Was escorted out and arrested. 6. De Jure & De Facto Segregation - De Jure: “by law” segregation (law articulates segregation/mandatory) (in the South) - De Facto: “by fact/in reality” segregation. (Segregation based on economics, prejudice, individual’s private choice) (in the Northeast, West, and some Midwest) 7. Importance of Brown V. Board of Education - challenges and overturns the decision made in Plessy V. Ferguson. - Linda Brown, an African-American child, wanted to attend an all white school which was closer
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This note was uploaded on 07/13/2008 for the course GOV 101 taught by Professor Delcastillo during the Spring '08 term at CUNY John Jay.

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Gov101 Final Review - GOV 101 FINAL EXAM STUDY SHEET 1....

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