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Eight manifestations of the Arab Renaissance:Arab LiteratureArab Media: newspapers, publishing, radio, television..Arab LanguageArab Women EmpowermentArab Painting & SculptureArab CinemaoEgyptian banker hired people & sent them to Germany to train on filming equipment. oEssentially Egyptian cinema. Arab Musico120 different kinds of Arabic music. Arab Political CurrentsArnold Toynbee: A study of historyoMost important english historian.oHe says you will not find more than 8000 years of proof of human civilization (ex. jars, houses…)oBirth of the whole planet occurred in Iraq. oBerbers = amazigh -> people in Africa. oFirst person to come to Canada from Lebanon came in 1856 (Antonious Bachaalani who arrived in North America)1860-62: civil war in Syria & Lebanon.1861-1965: civil war in USA.1867: founding of Canada (British North America Act)1867-1875: few Syro-Lebanese arrived in Canada.1882 Canada opened door for immigrants from Syria & Lebanon, within a few years theirnumbers grew to a few hundred. oLebanon = laban (white) named after the white mountains. Two streams of Arab Political trends: Islamic & modernist nationalism: (on midterm)IslamicWahhabi or Salafi tradition.(1750) Muslim brotherhood.(1928) -> traditionalists, want to revive golden arab age.