Annahada - Annahada The Arab Renaissance Meaning Al-Nahda...

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Annahada - The Arab RenaissanceMeaning: Al-Nahda or an-Nahdah; "awakening" - a cultural rebirth of the Arabs that began in the19th century in Egypt, Lebanon, Syria & later on in other Arabic speaking regions.oPeriod of intellectual modernization & reform, has no definite end. (definite start: 1798 -Napoleon invasion)1967: catastrophe for Arabic culture.3 Representatives of AnnahdaRifa'a el-Tahtawi (1801-1873)oPioneering figure of the Arab renaissance.oMuslim clergy who went to Paris in 1926. oWrote a book describing Paris in the most positive way.Said "If we really want to see the Golden Age in Islam, it's in Paris. This is how we wish Muslim countries to be"Gave it to the Egyptian government in other to aid in its modernization. Butrus al-Bustani (1819-1893)oMaronite Christian from Mount Lebanon.oKnew 9 languages.oConsidered the father of the Arab Renaissance. oWrote many books about literature, a dictionary, history & published magazines. oStarted a secular school with no religious affiliation. Ibrahim al-Yaziji (1847-1906) "Wake up Arabs"oInvented the Arabic letters for the typewriter (was a nuisance bc Arabic letters are joinedtogether and classic typewriters weren't able to do this)This invention was a revolution.oWrote poem - "Wake up Arabs" (Arabs have been sleeping for 400 years & foreign invasion caused giant catastrophe)oWrote volumes of poetry & literature, when he spoke in public he was very eloquent in standard Arabic. Why is proof of the Renaissance needed?Colonial powers deny that the Arabs had a Renaissance. oEnglish, French & German publishers in Western World aren't willing to publish books about this topic -> therefore evidence of Renaissance must be provided.The Aleppo-Beirut-Cairo TriangleBirth places of Arab renaissance. oHad investments, education, newspapers.French wanted to make Algeria totally French. oWhen Algeria won independence in 1962, they joined Arab culture & added to it.Evidence of Annahada1Printing Presses
oIn Aleppo first (1706) - first Arabic printing press (was invented by Germans)oFrench & Italian missionaries brought them to the churches.First pioneers in printing in Aleppo were Father Athanasios dabbas & Father Abdallah Zakher. Zaker brought a new printing press to Mount Lebanon in 1732 to a chruch in the village of Dhour Shweir.oCairo had printing presses in 1806 & major ones in 1832 & 1834. Napoleon started an Arabic newspaper to spread propaganda (saying he likes Muslims…means well…) oLarge printing press in Mar Qazhaya monastery in Lebanon in 1808. 1Journalism & MediaoAleppo was the modern city of Arab journalism (started in 1855)Examples: al-Watan, Akher dakiak. oAl-Ahram most important Arabic newspaper in Egypt (around 1975)Other important newspapers in Cairo: Al-Muqattam, Al-Hilal.oIn Beirut, first newspaper in Lebanon is Hadikat al-Akhbar (1858), al-Jinan 1870, Lissanal-Hal (1877).

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