Chapter2 - 1 Chapter Two Atoms Molecules and Ions 2 Laws of...

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1 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Chapter Two Chapter Two
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2 Law of Conservation of Mass The total mass remains constant during a chemical reaction. Law of Definite Proportions All samples of a compound have the same composition, or … All samples have the same proportions, by mass, of the elements present. Laws of Chemical Combination
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3 The Law of Definite Proportions Three different sources of a compound … … have the same composition.
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4 Example 2.2 The mass ratio of oxygen to magnesium in the compound magnesium oxide is 0.6583:1. What mass of magnesium oxide will form when 2.000 g of magnesium is completely converted to magnesium oxide by burning in pure oxygen gas?
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5 Law of Multiple Proportions When two or more different compounds of the same two elements are compared, the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the second element are in the ratio of small whole numbers.
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6 Law of Multiple Proportions (cont’d) Ratio of oxygen-to-carbon in CO 2 is exactly twice the ratio in CO.
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7 Law of Multiple Proportions (cont’d) Four different oxides of nitrogen can be formed by combining 28 g of nitrogen with: 16 g oxygen, forming Compound I 48 g oxygen, forming Compound II 64 g oxygen, forming Compound III 80 g oxygen, forming Compound IV Compounds I–IV are N 2 O, N 2 O 3 , N 2 O 4 , N 2 O 5 What is the ratio 16:48:64:80 expressed as small whole numbers?
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8 Proposed in 1803 to explain the law of conservation of mass, law of definite proportions, and law of multiple proportions. Matter is composed of atoms : tiny, indivisible particles called atoms. All atoms of a given element are the same. Atoms of one element differ from atoms of other elements. Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements unite in fixed proportions. A chemical reaction involves rearrangement of atoms. No atoms are created, destroyed, or broken apart. Dalton’s Atomic Theory
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9 Dalton’s Atomic Theory: Conservation of Mass and Definite Proportions … six fluorine atoms and four hydrogen atoms after reaction. Mass is conserved. Six fluorine atoms and four hydrogen atoms before reaction … HF always has one H atom and one F atom; always has the same proportions (1:19) by mass.
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10 Three subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, electrons Protons and neutrons are located at the center of an atom (at the nucleus ). Electrons are dispersed around the nucleus. Subatomic Particles
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11 The atomic number ( Z ) is the number of protons in the nucleus of a given atom of a given element. The mass number ( A ) is an integral number that is the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in an atom. The number of neutrons = A Z . Atomic Number and Mass Number
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12 How many protons are in chlorine-35?
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