Chapter9 - 1 Chapter Nine Chemical Bonds 2 Chemical Bonds:...

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1 Chemical Bonds Chapter Nine Chapter Nine
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2 Forces called chemical bonds hold atoms together in molecules and keep ions in place in solid ionic compounds. Chemical bonds are electrostatic forces; they reflect a balance in the forces of attraction and repulsion between electrically charged particles. Chemical Bonds: A Preview
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3 Electrostatic Attractions and Repulsions Nuclei repel other nuclei Nuclei attract electron(s) Electrons repel other electrons Both attractions and repulsions occur; what’s the net effect?? Answer: it depends on the distance between nuclei …
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4 Energy of Interaction Closer together; attraction increases. At 74 pm, attractive forces are at a maximum, energy is at a minimum. Closer than 74 pm, repulsion increases. Hydrogen nuclei far apart; just a little attraction.
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5 Valence electrons play a fundamental role in chemical bonding. When metals and nonmetals combine, valence electrons usually are transferred from the metal to the nonmetal atoms, giving rise to ionic bonds . In combinations involving only nonmetals, one or more pairs of valence electrons are shared between the bonded atoms, producing covalent bonds . In losing, gaining, or sharing electrons to form chemical bonds, atoms tend to acquire the electron configurations of noble gases - octet rule . The Lewis Theory of Chemical Bonding: An Overview
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6 In a Lewis symbol , the chemical symbol for the element represents the nucleus and core electrons of the atom. Dots around the symbol represent the valence electrons. In writing Lewis symbols, the first four dots are placed singly on each of the four sides of the chemical symbol. Dots are paired as the next four are added. Lewis symbols are used primarily for those elements that acquire noble-gas configurations when they form bonds. Lewis Symbols
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7 Example 9.1 Give Lewis symbols for magnesium, silicon, and phosphorus.
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8 When atoms lose or gain electrons, they may acquire a noble gas configuration, but do not become noble gases. Because the two ions formed in a reaction between a metal and a nonmetal have opposite charges, they are strongly attracted to one another and form an ion pair . The net attractive electrostatic forces that hold the cations and anions together are ionic bonds . The highly ordered solid collection of ions is called an ionic crystal . Ionic Bonds and Ionic Crystals
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9 Formation of a Crystal of Sodium Chloride Sodium reacts violently in chlorine gas. Na donates an electron to Cl … … and opposites attract.
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10 Lewis symbols can be used to represent ionic bonding between nonmetals and: the s -block metals, some p -block metals, and a few d -block metals. Instead of using complete electron configurations
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Chapter9 - 1 Chapter Nine Chemical Bonds 2 Chemical Bonds:...

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