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Midterm number 2Fundementals of Lifespan DevelopmentChildhood & AdolescenceChapter 5 : Physical Development, Cognitive Development,Language, Specific Social Cognitive skillsWhat sets us apart from other animals?Why do humans take so long to grow up? - Brain development : abilityto take another person's perspective. Mind-Reading skill. Language.Slow growing frontal lobe1) Slow growing frontal lobe:Frontal lobe development takes approximately 20 yearsAs frontal lobes mature throughout childhood & adolescence, ourability to think through, inhibit and plan our actions graduallyimproves.Physical development:1) Principles of physical growth :Cephalocaudal sequence : bodies elongate & lenghten (BIG HEADS)Mass-to-specific sequence : Physical abilities become more coordinatedand precise (clumsy to skillful)2) Two types of physical skills:Gross motor skills : Large muscle movement (jumping, climbing,throwing)Fine motor skills : Small coordinated movement (writing, usingustensils)*Between age 2-12 child will double in heightSelected Motor Skill Milestones : Progression from Age 2 to Age 6At age 2 : Picks up small objects with thumb and forefinger, feeds selfwith spoon. Walks unassisted. Rolls or flings ballAt age 3: Prints name, walks without support, tosses ball overhead withbent elbowsAt age 4 : Cuts paper in approximate circlesAt age 6 : Copies two short words, hops on each foot, catches andcontrols 10 inch ball with arms in front of bodyPerson-environment fit :
Threats to Growth and Motor Skills:Inadequate Nutrition :Top-ranking 21st century global public health threat to physicaldevelopment-Causes stunting-Compromises bone, muscle and brain developement-Causes lethargy-Impairs growth and fine motor skillsChildhood Obesity:Monitored in the United States by National Health and Nutrition Study(NHANES)Assessed by BMI = ratio of weight to heightOverweight : at or over 85% for the normsObesity : BMI at or over above the 95th percentile, compared to U.S.normsGlobal Epidemic :Demographics differ within developed and developing worldsIn developped world: children from low-income families, in the UnitedStates, more prevalent among Latino and African American childrenObesity in the developing world : Most prevalent in cities and amongaffluent boys & girlsResearch suggests obesity has a partly epigenetic, pre-birth root-Events in womb and at birth may create obesity-linked changes inDNA-Rapid weight gain during infancy and early childhood is strongerpredictor of later obesity, outweighs genetic predispositions.Obesogenic factors-Working parents with less time to prepare nutritious, sit-down meals-Oversized portions of food; restaurant foods, large servings andcaloric contentLow-cost calorie dense food preferencesLack of exercise ; bidirectional effectObesity can present serious barriers to living a successful lifeWithin and between culture variations :
Classic study in U.S. demonstrated prejudiced attitudes toward obesepeers by age 3Parental attitudes may affect unhealthy eating and obesityInterventions: